Systematic Political Science


Behavioral Enthalpy/Entropy Associated With Transcription and Mitochondria of Human Biochemistry and Cryptanalysis for Psuchê Proofs 

Dallas F. Bell, Jr. 

1. Cryptanalysis

Cryptography (Greek kryptos for hidden, graphos for written) is the study and practice of hiding written or spoken communication.  To hide the information to be communicated, a ciphertext must replace the plaintext of the commonly understood lexicon used.  The cipher (code) is transferred from the sender to the receiver over platforms. Cryptographic platforms range from paper(s) to computers and are called cryptosystems. 

Today, cryptosystems use elliptic curves from algebraic structures.  Auguste Kerckhoffs' (1835-1903) principle, assumption, axiom or law stated that a cryptosystem should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key of course, is public knowledge.  Claude Shannon (1916-2001) said the enemy knows the system. 

Military and nonmilitary strategies should find the débouché and balance between keeping the process simple and maintaining the security of the system.  As with all things, entropy or a state of energy loss effects cryptosystems (in a closed system).  Encrypted papers deteriorate and the information is degraded.  Computer systems cannot hold the imputed ciphertext indefinitely.  Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1340/44-1400) stated in The Frankeleins Tale of The Canterbury Tales, "your trouthe kepe and save, Trouthe is the hyeste thing that man may kepe."  The scope of cryptanalysis must include the parameter of entropy in appropriating ciphers in cryptosystems. 

2. Transcription and Mitochondria of Human Biochemistry

2.1. Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the study of the chemical compounds and processes occurring in living organisms.  Monomers and polymers are a structural basis of cellular components of the four macromolecules of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.  Monomers are smaller molecules that form macromolecules.  Polymers are macromolecules created by the synthesized monomers where the two molecules undergo dehydration synthesis. 

Carbohydrates have monomers called monosaccharides which include deoxyribose (C5,H10,O4), glucose (C6,H12,O6), and fructose (C6,H12,O6).  Water (H2,O) is produced when two monosaccharides undergo hydration synthesis.  As we can see, carbohydrates contains carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) and functions as energy storage and structure. 

Lipids are usually composed of a molecule of glycerol and other molecules.  The main lipid or triglyceride has one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids.  The saturated or unsaturated fatty acids are the monomers.  Lipids range from vegetable cooking oils to cheese and butter.  Lipids may have a polar characteristic that is not water resistant as well as have a nonpolar characteristic that does not react well with water. 

Proteins are large molecules and have monomers of 20 kinds of amino acids.  When amino acids combine they form a peptide bond and become a protein or polypeptide.  Proteins perform structure roles (e.g. skeletal) as do carbohydrates.  Proteins can be seen as chains of amino acids with a carbon atom bound to four groups; an amino acids group (NH2), a carboxylic acid group (COOH) which under physiologic conditions are NH3+ and COO- respectively, a hydrogen atom (H), and (R) which is different for each of the 20 amino acids. 

Nucleic acids are named for their prevalence in cellular nuclei.  It is a heavy molecular macromolecule composed of nucleotide chains that convey genetic information.  The most common nuclei acids are DNA and RNA.  Their monomers are nucleotides such as adenine, cytosine and guanine which occur in DNA and RNA, and thymine which occurs only in DNA, and uracil which occurs in RNA.  Nucleic acids serve as genetic information for all living cells and viruses and form the base molecule for adenosine triphosphate which is the primary energy carrier molecule for all living organisms. 

2.2. Transcription

Both of the DNA and RNA sequences use the same language.  Transcription is the synthesis of RNA language/information to another molecule under the direction of DNA.  A complementary nucleotide RNA strand is produced when the DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by RNA polymerase.  The produced messenger (mRNA) carries a genetic message from the DNA to the protein synthesizing machinery of the cell. 

The portion of DNA transcribed into the RNA molecule is a transcription unit.  The transcription unit that is translated into protein contains sequences that direct and regulate protein synthesis and code the sequence translated into protein.  Prokaryotic transcription occurs in the cytoplasm alongside translation.  Eukaryotic transcription is largely localized to the nucleus where it is separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclei membrane.  The translation occurs when the transcript is transported into the cytoplasm.  Rodger D. Kornberg won the 2006 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work concerning eukaryotic transcription. 

Transcription has five stages.  The first is "pre-initiation" where the RNA polymerase binds to the DNA and with cofactors unwinds the DNA.  That creates an initiation bubble so the RNA polymerase has access to the single stranded DNA template.  Second, "initiation" starts and the first phosphodiester bond is formed once the complex has been opened.  Third, "promoter clearance" is after the first bond is synthesized and the RNA polymerase must clear the promoter which has a tendency to release the RNA transcript and produce truncated transcripts.  Those abortive initiations cease occurring once the transcript reaches around 23 nucleotides.  Four, "elongation" occurs as one strand of DNA (the non-coding template strand) is used as a template for DNA synthesis.  The RNA polymerase traverses the template strand and with base pairing that complementary with the DNA template creates an RNA copy.  Lastly, "termination" is when the strategy to stop transcription has been adopted. 

2.3. Mitochondrion

Mitochondrion (singular from Mitochondria; Greek mitos for thread and khondrion for granule) is a membrane enclosed organelle found in many eukaryotic cells.  Mitochondria generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate used for energy. Mitochondria are also involved is signaling, cell differentiation, the cell's cycle and function, and its death.                    

3. Behavioral Enthalpy/Entropy

Enthalpy (heat content) is a description of the thermodynamic potential of a system.  That information can be used to determine the work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system under pressure and entropy.  The International System of Units is abbreviated SI from the French Le Système International d'Unités.  SI is the modern form of the metric system and the source of the measures below. 

H (entropy in joules) = E (energy of the system) + p (pressure in pascals) V (volume in cubic meters) 

In the absence of an external field the following may apply. 

H = U (internal energy in joules) + pV 

Entropy is the state at which all things in a closed system move to a state of less order since the times of Adam and Eve (Gen. 3:1-24).  Moses recorded after the flood that the maximum lifespan for mankind was 120 years (Gen. 6:3).  Later, King David noted that humans live 70 to 80 years (Ps. 90:10).  King Solomon wrote (Prov. 3:1-2, 10:27) that the lifespan potential could be realized by complying with Natural Laws of Freewill (NLF).  It is evident that people that conform to NLF, such as to not drink alcohol to excess, live healthier and longer lives than people that violate NLF. 

We know that DNA and RNA are subject to entropy.  Mitochondria DNA is associated with diseases and may play a role in the ageing process.  Mitochondrial diseases have unique characteristics due to the way they are inherited and their importance to cell function.  Some viruses, such as HIV which is the cause of AIDS, have the ability to reverse transcription of RNA to DNA.  The complementary DNA strand (cDNA) is integrated into the host cell's genome via another enzyme causing the host cell to generate viral proteins which reassemble into new viral particles.  As a result, the host cell undergoes programmed cell death. 

Even well-meaning human intervention can hasten DNA/RNA entropy.  Recently, vaccines for youngsters have been credited with needlessly triggering autism and other mitochondrial disorders.  Strains of pathogenic bacteria, such as salmonella, may in time be becoming resistant or not susceptible to antibiotics.  (The lack of complete understanding of human biochemistry and entropy was echoed by Rodger Kornberg to Dallas F. Bell Jr. in an email exchange in July, 2008.) 

The reality of the behavioral entropy of DNA/RNA in humans and linguistics of cryptosystems is apparent.  Niels K. Jerne, the 1984 Nobel Prize laureate in medicine and physiology, used Noam Chomsky's generative grammar components for protein structures in the immune system. 

Jerne wrote that the antibody molecule is less like a word and more like a sentence or phrase.  The immune system is a lexicon of sentences which is capable of responding to any sentence expressed by the magnitude of antigens which the immune system may encounter.  He emphasized that the sentences representing antibodies possess partial mirror images of an antigenic sentence.  Those antibodies are not echoes of the invading antigen, but were already available to the host in its repertoire of B cells before the antigen arrived. 

Temporal biochemistry of humans is a collection of DNA/RNA programs and do not seem to have freewill.  Those molecules react to their environmental input and potential.  (The subject of monozygotic and dizygotic twins' similarities and differences who were raised together and apart was broached in the paper titled Behavioral Genetics: Weltanschauungs of Natural Law, Crime and Identity.)  The element of human consciousness with the biochemistry exerts choice from freewill on their biochemistry by their spirit or soul.  It is thus concluded that humans are autonomous moral (compliance or noncompliance with NLF) agents. 

It is not possible to create a flawless behavioral power law of a biochemical and environmental stimuli and an exactly predicted behavioral effect.  Good people (compliant with NLF) can return evil with forgiveness and bad people (not compliant with NLF) can return good with evil.  However, a range of behavioral possibilities can be predicted using the enthalpy energy models, such as when the government violates NLF and takes private property.  The victims of that violation of NLF could range from civil disobedience to armed revolution.  (The difficulty with power laws of terrorism specifically was discussed by Dallas F. Bell Jr. and both Neil Johnson of Oxford University and Michael Spagat of the University of London during May and June, 2006.)  It is well documented that prolonged stress (S1, S2 and S3) releases hormones for self-defense and leads to many biological problems if not resolved quickly. 

4. Psuchê Proofs

4.1. Introduction

Einstein pointed out that in this realm energy and mass (matter) are the basic forms of existence.  Mass can become energy and energy can become mass under favorable conditions.  An empirical psuchê (Greek for soul; Hebrew for nephesh) proof could be as follows.  

--A soul is equated to the known existence of consciousness.

--Consciousness is not mass or energy.

--The soul is not mass or energy, yet still exists by consciousness. 

The empirical disproof would entail using mass and energy to create consciousness. 

Constructing soul proofs would include the two anthropocentric groups of humans and nonhumans. 

4.2. Humans

The Bible contains revelation of the existence of the nonmaterial human soul and its eternal destination in heaven for the saved (Rev. 20:4) and its eternal destination in hell for the unsaved (Prov. 23:14).  Jesus' statement on the cross to the repentant sinner was that the sinner was to be with Jesus in paradise that day (Luke 23:39-43).  The Bible is singularly used as the reference for human souls because it perfectly describes the omniscient God of the first cause of all effects and passes the perjurer's test (false in one false in all) concerning all epistemological aspects.  It must either be accepted or rejected.  If it is accepted the following is to be believed.  The soul is created by God and joined to the immediate biochemical result of conception (Luke 1:41).  The soul belongs to God (Exek. 18:3-4) and is immortal (Matt. 10:28).  The soul believes (Heb. 10:39), gets wisdom (Prov. 19:8), can love God (Deut. 6:5; Luke 10:27), sins (Mic. 6:7), and can keep God's liberating law/word (Deut. 11:18, 26:16).  The human soul leaves the body in death (Gen. 35:18) and has memory of this biochemical realm (Luke 16:19-31). 

If saved (John 3:16) the soul is infused with God's Holy Spirit energy and can give up the biochemical life to live or if not saved can loose the biochemical life by trying to live (Matt. 16:24-26).  The soul is temporally limited to individual biochemistry, such as the number of healthy neurons in the brain for IQ or affected by diseases like Alzheimer's.  There are examples of supernatural intervention by God beginning with the creation itself (Gen. 1:1-27).  It is recorded that the shadow on the sundial turned backward (2 Kin. 20:11).  Jesus turned the water into wine (John 2:1-11) and raised Lazarus from the dead (John 11:38-45). 

If self-consciousness was biochemical and since the soul is nonmaterial yet can love God, the human biochemistry would mirror the aspects of the soul's characteristics of intellect, emotion and freewill, and is how demons communicate with witches (1 Sam. 28:7-25).    The body is to be the temple of the Holy Spirit for the saved but can be influenced by demons (Acts 5:1-9).  Supernatural possession of the soul means the freewill control of the body is yielded to the supernatural spirits of either the demonic (Matt. 8:28-34, 9:32-33, 12:22-23, 15:22-28, 17:14-21; Mark 1:23-26, 16:9) or the Holy Spirit.  The soul is eternally secure if saved because greater is the Holy Spirit within a person than the demonic in this world.  The saved are not to quench the Holy Spirit's control (Eph. 4:30; 1 Thes. 5:19) or loss of discernment and fruit will be suffered. 

4.3. Nonhumans

The four categories of nonhumans are natural nonliving things (e.g. rocks etc.), human made nonliving things (e.g. computers etc. but does not include natural life from artificial means), non animal living things (e.g. plant life etc.), and animal life.  The first three categories do not reflect the potential for consciousness which is required for souls. 

Well meaning biblical arguments for animals having eternal souls based on passages that all that have breath praise God (Ps. 150:6) and all living things have souls (Job 12:10).  Worms are said to be part of the eternal torment of hell for the unsaved (Mark 9:43-48), but people with an unbiblical agenda may interpret eternity to animals (Is. 34:11-17).  Biblical language includes methods of common discourse, such as (1 Sam 15:10-11 and 29) where God is said to have repented but a few verses later it is noted that God is omniscient and is never surprised and need not repent.  Taken in context, the first verses described God's dissatisfaction and that meaning is expanded on in the later verse. 

The Bible addresses man's relationship to animals in that man should care for animals (Prov. 12:10) as man was given dominion over them by God at creation (Gen. 1:27-30).  If animals had eternal souls and thus freewill, then animals could be expected to break God's laws such as to love God with all one's heart, mind and soul (La) and love his neighbor as himself (Lb).  Then, like man, animals would need salvation.  Since man has dominion over animals and animals violate La and Lb by killing the innocent, man would have the need to seek the conversion of the animal's lost souls.  There is no biblical reference of that need nor were accommodations made for that circumstance.  Instead animals are said to perish at death (Ps. 49:12-15, 1 Cor. 15:31-33). 

God's relationship to animals is that He created them (Gen. 1, Ps. 104) and that they belong to Him (Ps. 24:1).  God cares for them (Ps. 147:9, Matt. 6:26, 1 John 4:16).  Animals obeyed God by coming to the ark (Gen. 6:17-22), frogs were sent against the Egyptian Pharaoh (Ex. 8:2-14), snakes were used to judge the rebellious Israelis (Num. 21:5-9), lions did not eat Daniel but ate his evil enemies (Dan. 6:16-24), killed the disobedient (1 Kin. 13:24-26, 2 Kin. 17:25-26), the whale swallowed Jonah for three days (Jon. 1:17, 2:1-10), and bears killed disrespectful children (2 Kin. 2:23-24).  God used so-called lower animals of lice (Ex. 8:16-18), flies (Ex.8:21-31), locusts (Deut. 28:38, 1 Kin. 8:37), worms (Deut. 28:39, Jon. 4:7, Acts 12:23), and caterpillars (1 Kin. 8:37).  On the other hand, God had to protect the Israelis from snakes and scorpions (Deut. 8:15) meaning that not all animals always obey God. 

If animals obey God at times and do not obey God at other times, it indicates that animals have freewill.  Most people have witnessed animals exhibiting emotion.  Common examples of animal emotions are when cats and dogs become sulky, jealous and angry when other cats and dogs receive more attention.  An ass was given an audible voice to speak to Balaam (Num. 22:28-31) and showed anger as well as showed intellect and freewill to save Balaam's life.  Even an ox knows his human owner (Is. 1:3).  Seemingly, the fact that animals have freewill, intellect and emotion could indicate the presence of a temporal soul for God's communication purposes.  Animals (i.e. hogs in Matt. 8:28-34) have been known to be possessed by demons. 

It is possible that some animals do only God's will and is the reason that they were acceptable by God as a sacrifice for sin during the Old Covenant time period, for example sheep.  It could also be that sacrificial animals were just a sign of the owner willingly giving the best offering in public obedience and love for God.   

If animals do not have temporal souls, then they have uniqueness or uniformity with the biochemistry of man regarding intellect, emotion and freewill.  Whatever the reality is, animals have no precedence for being given governmental equivalence with the rights of mankind. 

5. Conclusion

As cryptanalysis observes the enthalpy and entropy of the information of cryptosystems, human biochemistry can be readily compared to those efforts.  DNA/RNA has a language that is deteriorating in all humans where the death rate is 100%.  That reality has proven the existence and character of the God of the first cause of all effects described in the Bible. 

A concocted math formula that artificially overrides rationality could falsely show that God's existence is less than 100% of absolute and is a 99.999% possibility.  It could also be used to show that 2 + 2 = 4 is 99.999% possible and not 100% since we have a finite understanding of infinite math.  No rational person chooses to not accept the sum of two plus two as being four because of their recognized lack of having infinite knowledge of math.   

The human soul is as real as the God who created it and is accountable to that God.  Proofs for this view abound in logic, empirical evidence and revelation.  It is then up to each individual to respond appropriately. 

------------------ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2008 DALLAS F. BELL, JR.-----------------