Gates and Neurons:
Design and Programming Found in Computers and Neuroscience
F. Bell, Jr.
A renowned scholar in
the field of cognitive neuroscience recently gave a talk to a few
hundred university professors. With a wide smile, he said some
people still believe in God. The audience began to snicker.
Fighting back laughter, the speaker continued and said that those
same people also believe in something called sin. The speaker and
his audience burst into laughter at the absurdity of those notions
taking several moments before he could resume the lecture. That same
week the inventor of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine,
which is greatly used in neuroscience, and hundreds of millions of
people with intellect, education, and experience similar to the
speaker and his audience attended a church to worship God and confess
their failure to comply with natural law--sin.
The professor and his
audience of professors expressed a dyad logic set of (no God, no sin)
with a truth value set of (0,0) regarding compliance with reality
which are monads of systematic theology. (Please see the paper by
Dallas F. Bell, Jr. titled Rationality Tables: Applying Polarizing
Nonmaterial Monads in Risk Analysis.) The professors' consistent
triad logic set would be (no sin, no justice, no love) with a truth
value set of (0,0,0). The values of no justice and no love absurdly
nullify the purpose and construction of the social institution dyads
of family, church, business, and government.
How do the views of the
professors and opposing views occur like those held by the inventor
of the MRI with a logic set of (God, justice, love) or (1,1,1)?
Systematic political science presents the behavioral model where each
person's chosen theological track leads to an epistemological track
which provides the rationality for all individual behavior in
pursuing common needs. People with the same tracks form societal
groups with the same eschatological beliefs based on their theology.
This paper will focus on the brain's intelligent design and
theological programming that leads to logic needed for subsequent
behavior. First, the intelligent design and programming of computers
will be addressed to aid in the understanding of neuroscience.
2. Logic Gates (Computers)
A logic gate is a
structure of switches used to calculate, via logic, in digital
circuits thereby creating digital computers. Logic gates produce
predictable output based on the input. Generally, the input is one
of two selected voltages represented as (0) and (1). An "and"
gate has the following truth table of sets.
(0,0) then (0)
An "or" gate is
(0,0) then (0)
Inverters or "not"
gates allow the alternate gates of "not and" called "nand",
and "not or" called "nor". A "nand" gate has the
(0,0) then (1)
A "nor" gate is
(0,0) then (1)
The (0) has low voltage
and the (1) has higher voltage. The range is between 0.7 volts in
emitter coupled logic to approximately 28 volts in relay logic. The
function of different gates can be seen below.
or: high input
creates high output
nor: high input creates low output
and: low input creates low output
nand: low input creates high output
Logic gates cannot
store a value nor have memory, because when and if an input changed
the output would immediately react. However, the inherent properties
of a capacitor allow a charge to be stored. Feedback may preserve
input if the output is routed through the logic again using a latch
The first logic gates
were mechanically made in 1837. Today microprocessors may contain
over a million individual gates for the processor and use hundreds
and thousands of millions of gates for memory. Employing some
additional language constructs, most programming languages use lambda
In the brain, nerve
cells known as neurons function in a more complex yet similar way to
logic gates in digital computers. Unlike most cells, neurons have a
structure of axons and dendrites for transmitting signals. A neuron
receives a range of input from its dendrites, integrates them, and
produces an output in the axon depending on the type and frequency of
the input signal. That signal provides input to other neurons or
cells such as muscle cells.
The input to a neuron
must surpass a threshold to cause it to react. The input signal
depends on whether the synapse, the collection of signals between the
axon and dendrites of neurons, is strong, or weak, or excitatory, or
inhibitory. A neuron with two inputs can act in different modes
depending on the type and strength of its inputs.
The output of a
neuron's axons is a series of pulses of on and off signals as seen
in computers' logic gates. Neurons are much more complex and
versatile than computers, since they integrate thousands of inputs
from dendrites, and process them both temporally and spatially.
Computers must execute a function or program in a sequence of steps.
The logical function of
two strong excitatory inputs of logic "or" the neuron will be
stimulated if either input is active. In the logic "and" of two
weak excitatory inputs both must be active to stimulate the neuron.
With a logic of "if", having one weak and one strong excitatory
input, the strong input must be active for the weak input to generate
effect. The activity of the neuron depends on the activity of the
weak signal, but only if the strong signal is active.
The logical functions
of mixed inputs of a strong inhibitory input and a weak excitatory
input of logic "if-not" the inhibitory input will overwhelm the
excitatory input if it is active. The neural activity depends on the
weak excitatory input, but only if the strong inhibitory input is
computer logic gates, are adaptable. Internal and external factors
may cause the neurons' functions. Neurons can memorize information
for a short-term by a electrochemical process or long-term by
structural means. With electrical memory, ions flow due to
transmission and basic information processing lasting 1 to 100
Chemical change may
create a second to a minute of memory as balances and secondary
messengers affect receptors and ion channels in the cell membranes.
Memory lasting for 1 to 24 hours occurs by molecular synthesis and
gene expression leads to long-term modification. Structural changes
in the cell itself last from 1 to 365 days. This alters information
processing and also changes membrane extensions i.e. synapses and
dendrites connecting to other neurons and the outside. In cellular
memory the brain can relate temporal and spatial information deemed
critical for sequencing motor movements.
Ion channels are
membrane proteins that function as electrical signal transducers.
They govern the electrical properties of all living cells. The
function of ion channels is regulated by a number of signaling
molecules. Their classifications include K+, Na+, non-selective
cation channels, etc. Ion channels are divided into voltage-gated
and ligand-gated channels based on the type of physiological stimulus
There are one hundred
billion or more neurons in a human brain. There are three times more
glial cells. Glial cells modulate the rate of nerve impulse
propagation and control the uptake of neurotransmitters. The brain
is theologically programmed to comply with material and nonmaterial
realities with truth values of (1) or accept their alternative of
noncompliance with realities which have truth values of (0). The
internal choice of each individual then allows the neurons to act as
logic gates to process input consistent with the logic chosen by
Both logic gates in
computers and neurons studied in neuroscience reflect similar
intelligent design and programming. Obviously, design requires there
to have been a designer with purpose and therefore intellect. We can
see how the professor discussed in the introduction of this paper
reached his system of logic which rejected intelligent design. His
stare decisis logic set (0,0) or (no God, no purpose) caused his
neuron logic gates to accept other logic sets for consistency such as
the untrue dyads of (no purpose, no order).
well-known scientist with decades of espousing the same untrue logic
values recently changed his view when studying DNA. His logic set is
not perfectly (1) but is no longer (0). Using Bayes' averaging his
previously position of 0% probability of the existence of God was
adjusted by the 100% proof of the Divine DNA designer. It could be
assumed he now has a mathematically 50% belief in the existence of
God. Given there are observed to be no nonbelievers in foxholes or
on deathbeds evidencing the fact that all people are programmed with
a belief in God, it is doubtful anyone can truly have a 0% belief in
the probability of God's existence.
On the other hand, how
could there be a 100% belief in the probability of God's existence?
Children begin exhibiting a 100% belief at an early age, but
authority figures such as parents or educators may cause this choice
of belief to change to a lesser percent. According to the monads of
systematic theology, if the natural or programmed belief in God is
augmented with submission to God's atoning plan then the Holy
Spirit creates a perfect certainty. That 100% belief or acceptance
of the true theological neuron program would seem foolish to anyone
without Divine assistance.
Subjects were recently
analyzed using event-related functional MRI to examine neural
activation with anticipated probable material gains and losses or
expected value (EV). Group results indicated the subcortical nucleus
accumbens (NAcc) activated proportional to anticipated gain and the
cortical mesial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) also activated to
anticipated gain. Individual results indicated that NAcc activation
correlated with probability. These discoveries indicate that the
mesolimbic brain regions support EV and cortical regions represent a
probabilistic component and may integrate both. Efforts like this
continue to affirm that neurons provide both the material proof and
the method for processing the ultimate reality of their Divine
The author appreciates
the pioneering efforts of all those that have directly and indirectly
contributed to making this paper possible.
RIGHTS RESERVED © 2006 DALLAS F. BELL, JR.--------------