Adapting Plasma Models from Physics for Societal Chemistry
to Aid Behavioral Influences Analysis (BIA), Adversary Intent Inferencing
(AII), and International Negotiation and Conflict Resolution (INCR)
Dallas F. Bell, Jr.
The science of physics, among
other things, deals with the concept of matter. All physical things
can be seen in the states or phases of matter. As most people
know, those states are solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Some scholars
may also include the Bose-Einstein Condensate.
A solid has definite volume
and shape because its atoms are compressed. Crystalline solids
have definite melting points and are ionic (e.g. salt), covalent (e.g.
graphite), molecular (e.g. ice), and metallic (e.g. gold). Amorphous
solids do not have definite melting points (e.g. glass). Liquids
have definite volume but their shape changes and its atoms are less
compact than solids. The boiling point is reached when the substance
becomes a vapor. The third state of matter is gas. Gases
do not have definite volume or shape. Each of their particles
is separated and thus has low density.
is an ionized gas or cloud of protons,
neutrons and electrons where all the electrons are loosed from their
respective atoms. Plasma occurs naturally and has the ability
to act as a whole instead of separate atoms. Plasma has very low
density, for example the sun or lightning. Recently, the Bose-Einstein
Condensate (BEC) has been considered to be a fifth state of matter.
This state is often thought to be much like the opposite of plasma where
the gaseous superfluid state is formed by cooling to near absolute zero
(0 degrees Kelvin or 273.15 degrees Celsius or -459.67 degrees
Rubidium atoms were cooled to 170 nanokelvins in 1995. A large
portion of the atoms collapsed into the lowest known quantum state and
became a superfluid.
Satyendra N. Bose and Albert
Einstein predicted the BEC phenomenon based on statistical mechanics
of (mass-less) photons to (massive) atoms. This describes the
statistical distribution of identical particles with integer spin or
bosons. Cooling bosonic atoms causes them to condense. Degenerate
gases have been created from cooling fermions because the atoms do not
congregate in a simple state due to the Pauli Exclusion Principle.
BEC requires fermions to pair and form compound particles (molecules
or Cooper pairs) that are bosons. The first molecular BEC was
created in 2003. The first fermionic condensate of Cooper pairs
was created shortly thereafter.
In section 3 of the systematic
political science paper on proof
theory by Dallas F. Bell
Jr., it was pointed
out that people with the same theologies can bosonically occupy the
same institution(s) or nation-state. Generally, people with different
theologies fermionically occupy separate institutions or nation-state
systems. Human behavior is composed of quantum type mechanisms
and Natural Laws of Freewill (NLF) that approximates the options for
behavior. Then models used in physics for matter, such as plasma,
could have duel purpose uses for individual and societal behavior.
2. Plasma Models
As mentioned in section 1,
plasma is an ionized gas whose density is high enough that the long
range Coulomb force (named for Charles A. de Coulomb) is a significant
factor in determining the statistical properties of the particles and
whose density is low enough that the Coulomb force of a nearby particle
is much less than the cumulative long range Coulomb force exerted by
the many distant particles. This can be statistically satisfied
if there are many particles in a Debye sphere (named for Petrus J. W.
Debye), which is a sphere of radius one Debye length. A Debye
length is a typical length over which a charged particle's bare electric
field has substantial influence.
If sufficient heat (energy
transferred from one body or system to another--thermodynamics) is
added to a solid it becomes a liquid, is added to a liquid it becomes
a gas, is added to a gas the atoms ionize and become a plasma.
Most matter over 100000 degrees K is in an ionized state. Ultra
cold plasma can be created by manipulating the atoms with lasers where
the kinetic energy of the electrons is controlled.
Plasma particles behave collectively
and have a wide range of waves and oscillations. An oscillation
occurs if a group of electrons is slightly displaced from their
The displaced electrons detect an electrostatic force to return them
to their equilibrium but now have a kinetic energy equal to their initial
displacement. The electrons overrun and convert their kinetic
energy to potential energy producing an oscillation. The frequency
of the oscillation is the plasma frequency.
Plasmas have many modes of
waves due to their charged particles. The frequency and the wave
vector are functionally related to each other by a dispersion relationship
(in linear theories). Plasma is a nonlinear medium and unless
waves are of small amplitude they have nonlinear effects, such as solitons
and double layers.
Langmur waves are considered
to be the simplest. Ion sound or acoustic waves occur in a field
free plasma. Whistlers (named for the whistling sound) are an
example of electromagnetic waves that contain a magnetic field but
waves do not possess a mean magnetic field. An Alfvén wave is
a magnetohydrodynamic wave below where a dispersionless electromagnetic
wave can propagate. Collisionless damping or Landau damping an
initial disturbance is damped as it moves away from the point of
To describe the complete state
of a plasma would require transcribing all locations and velocities
of the particles as well as the electromagnetic field. It is more
practical to model the main types of plasma descriptions which are simple
particle, kinetic, fluid, hybrid and gyrokinetic. Many researchers
only model the fluid and the kinetic descriptions.
The fluid model describes the
macroscopic qualities of velocity, density and mean energy of velocity
moments. A two-fluid picture describes electron and ions
This model is used when collisions are high. The problem is that
this can't capture velocity space structures (e.g. beams or double
layers) nor resolve wave particle effects.
The kinetic model is often
necessary for collisionless plasma to describe the particle velocity
function at each point in the plasma. This model is more computationally
demanding than fluid models from the representing functions on a grid
in velocity and position or by following the trajectories of a large
number of individual particles.
Chemistry is the study of how
atoms interact. Of course, the atom is composed of protons, neutrons
and electrons. Protons have a positive charge and neutrons have
no charge. Each resides in the nucleus and is heavier than
The negatively charged electrons surround the nucleus. The magnitude
of the electron is equal to the charge of the proton. Chemical
bonding occurs when two atoms exchange or combine their outer electrons.
When the bond occurs, the atoms become a compound.
Valence (Latin meaning strong)
is the disposition of one atom toward another atom concerning bonding.
Some atoms share electrons in covalent bonds. In ionic bonding,
electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another.
The positive ion, made smaller in the exchange, is attracted to the
negative ion made larger. Two like atoms form a nonpolar covalent
bond. A polar covalent bond is formed from two atoms sharing their
The tendency of two or more
atoms reacting is so that each can reach a state where their valence
shell is filled. During a chemical reaction atoms bond or break
bonds and either release or consume energy. A chemical equation
records this process by indicating, on the left side of the equation,
how many and type of atoms became what molecule(s) on the right side.
The law regarding conservation of matter states that matter is neither
lost nor gained in chemical reactions. Matter simply changes form.
In equations, whatever was on the left side must be accounted for on
the right side.
The Periodic Table
of Elements, Factors and Variables
of Systematic Political Science presents the components of societal
chemistry not unlike chemistry's periodic table. Much like the
study of atoms indicates, people have similar make-ups and constraints.
Individuals are born with genetic ability, such as talents and IQ, that
could be considered neutrons since they are neutral in whether they
are used for good or evil. Each person is also born with neurological
software or templates containing all NLF that could be considered
We know NLF are innate because
in relationships with other people the timeline of
societal law indicates that historically
no one wants to be murdered, stolen from, lied to etc. Science
teaches that all effects had a cause and there must have been a cause
of all effects--God. That omniscient Being that is only worthy
of praise would have had to reveal Himself due to His character of mercy
and grace--Bible. The Bible explains that man was created by
God in His image.[Gen.1:26-27, 5:3, 9:6; Col. 3:10; 2 Cor. 4:4]
God inhabits praise for Him.[Ps. 22:3]
The higher the IQ, the greater
the density of the nucleus. Each individual chooses to comply
with or not comply with NLF which becomes the number of electrons or
valence. That decision effects the attraction and resistance of
bonds in relationships. Human bonds form compatible groups or
institutions of family, church, business and government that attract
or resist incompatible institutions.
Obviously, each person's
experience affects the number of protons and therefore the positive
charge. If NLF is reinforced the effect or positive charge is
greater and if not reinforced the effect or positive charge is less.
Either a (finite) person is controlled by the finite supernatural force
(evil) of noncompliance with NLF or is controlled by the infinite supernatural
force (good) of compliance with NLF.[Matt. 4:24, 8:28-34, 9:32-33, 12:22-23,
15:22-28, 17:14-21; Mark 1:23-26, 1:32, 5:1-20, 16:9]
The good force is from salvation
from God.[John 1:12, 3:16] When this occurs God's Holy Spirit
reinforces the protons and adds spiritual gifts or talents to the
12:6-8; 1 Cor. 12:4-30] The electron shield is supernaturally
filled.[Eph. 1:13; James 1:7] This state is the highest potential
for equilibrium of NLF and behavior. Less than this state results
in degrees of cognitive dissonance from the inequality of internal protons
of NLF and electrons or behavioral ability to live efficiently in compliance
with each NLF. Man must decrease so God can increase.[John 3:30]
The saved must not grow weary in adversity or faint in well doing.[Prov.
24:10; Gal. 6:9]
4. Behavioral Influences
Analysis (BIA), Adversary Intent Inferencing (AII),
and International Negotiation
and Conflict Resolution (INCR)
Behavioral Influences Analysis
provides the framework for strategists
to facilitate understanding and exploitation of the perceptual and context
areas of human analysis. To achieve sufficient understanding of
the target or target group, analysts must collect all pertinent data
and then apply it to the structures or models of possible
Adversary Intent Inferencing
(AII) modeling uses the BIA models as the core element for predictive
analyses and simulations to establish potential goals and behavioral
options of potential adversaries. The simulation could be computerized
or red teamed or a combination of those two means of validation and
BIA and AII models are an invaluable
resource for International Negotiation and Conflict Resolution (INCR).
INCR has a goal of reducing options to a binary decision tree for analysis
and strategy development. Supercomputer and red team simulation
can then be realistically incorporated. Plasma models may be of
specific use when analyzing human and institution behavior that is in
the transition arc level.
From the brief presentation
in this paper, it should be axiomatic that plasma models from physics
can be used to specifically illustrate the components and effects of
societal chemistry. That product should be helpful to analysts
involved in BIA, AII and INCR.
In the late 20th
century, it was noted that Americans had discovered the atom's subatomic
particles and principles but had, ironically, forgotten the Sermon on
the Mount--NLF exegesis by Emmanuel.[Matt. 5-7][Is. 7:14; Matt. 1:23]
People without salvation should not be expected to do otherwise.
People with salvation should be expected to be heated, as in a plasma
model, and have their NLF beliefs (protons) and behavior (electrons)
forcible destabilized. The other option is the super repression
of BEC where NLF are so oppressed that people flee or perish.
Frederic Douglass (1818-1895;
née Frederic Augustus Washington Bailey) was born a slave in the United
States. He received salvation and was transformed into a solid
but was BEC until he escaped. Though freed, Douglass behaved like
a plasma in the hostile environment but was able to forgive and even
love his former slave holders with the supernatural strength of the
Holy Spirit.[2 Cor. 3:17-18; 2 John 1:6] His self-sacrifice was
an exchange of something of value for something perceived to be of greater
value. That energy exchange is much less likely among the
The natural states of humans
are a solid (having a goal of compliance with all 10 NLF and their subsets),
a liquid (having a goal of compliance with 9-5 NLF), a gas (having a
goal of compliance with 4-0 NLF), and a plasma or BEC turmoil.[1 John
2:3-5, 5:18] These states can and should be modeled for the benefit
of complying with more NLF and reaching the highest potential for
RIGHTS RESERVED © 2007 DALLAS F. BELL, JR.----------------