of Societal Law with an Abridged Timeline
Law (lex from ligare
meaning to bind) is a rule which defines the conduct for an action ultimately
enforced by an authority as Aquinas reflected. Laws for the physical
realm such as gravity are referred to as physical natural laws, NLP.
Laws for human behavior such as murder are natural laws related to freewill,
NLF. Societal law in natural law theory is concerned with NLF
although it is acknowledged they must operate within NLP.
The ontology or existence of
law should address the following four possibilities. Law is either
an illusion, self-created, self-existent, or was created. Violations
of natural law result in consequences and cannot be an illusion.
Laws are rules or effects from a cause and cannot be self-created.
Likewise, since laws are effects which must have a cause they are prevented
from being self-existent. The cause of the effects of law has
harmony among its effects and therefore has purpose. Purpose emanates
from the design of intellect. Intellect comes from the personality
of a being. That being, ens necessarium, must transcend
its creation. Because, if there was a time when nothing existed
and now something exists that something would have had to preexist its
self to have had created its self from nothing. That creator being
is theologically called God.
All laws are then theologically
based in two respects. First, the existence of law is a reality
that will always be a factor. Second, societal laws are measured
on their compliance with those factors (deemed good) or noncompliance
with those factors (deemed evil.) This is contrary to legal positivists
who epistemologically adjust to societal whims. Laws must also
be noncontradictory and not simultaneously this and not this.
There would be legal rights from God and limits to law e.g. the "harm
principle" by John Stuart Mill. The efficiency of conforming
to absolute truth allows computers to be programmed by a logic code,
provides the needed measurement for labor exchange in complex economies,
and determines the direction for court decisions. Societal law
would need to encompass the rules for individuals and the institutions
of family, church, business, and government along with their subsets.
Dostoevski recognized that
an ethical structure is necessary for societal interaction to accommodate
justice, which requires judgment that requires punishment in a legal
system. The basic divisions in a legal system are criminal, civil,
and administrative. Statutes enacted to maintain order create
criminal law. Civil law compensates people who have been physically
or economically injured. Administrative law is concerned with
the enforcement process of administrative agencies.
Jurisprudence studies the theory
and philosophy of law. It is usually divided into the two groups
of analytic jurisprudence (what law is) and normative jurisprudence
(what law should be.) The jurist Han Kelson suggested a Pure Theory
of Law which would avoid reductionism to political ideology and moralizing.
This is an attempt to separate law as a phenomenon from morality and
nature which is in itself an expression of morality. That effort
is contrary to the logic previously discussed and the lines of Horace's
Third Ode, Leges Sine Moribus Vanae (laws without morals [are]
useless.) Those efforts were somewhat further discounted by the
Critical Legal Studies movement that among other things saw all law
as political. Thereby, confirming the proof that societal law
originates from the theological context of good or evil.
Law then needs to define behavior
such as murder and declare its punishment. It must be either theist
and comply with the God of the first cause of all natural law and provide
immutable standards of justice that give hope or nihilist which doesn't
provide immutable standards of justice and fosters hopelessness.
Oddly, the latter illogical approach is often accepted to psychologically
suppress the reality of being eternally accountable to the authority
of the infinite God of creation. That holy God gave a logic system
which has been historically proven immutable--the Bible. The
law contained therein has withstood unprecedented scrutiny and yet has
proven valid for thousands of years. Its truth is accepted or
rejected and untruth believed to fill the vacuum. Those who have
added to the Bible or taken away from its completeness have created
untruth. Solomon said that unjust people are an abomination to
the just and the just are an abomination to the unjust or wicked. This
explains why the good and just who conform to God's law have difficulty
coexisting with the evil and unjust who do not conform to His laws.
This teleological struggle is most evident in analysis of the historical
origins of societal law.
timeline of societal law------
been made to accommodate disputed dates among scholars. Dating
assumptions of scholars are based on the chosen theological belief for
when time began. Additional extrapolation of specific theologies
and subsequent societal law is expected. )
The major theological beliefs for when time began.
Around 4000 B.C.
Christianity, Islam, Baha'i
Billions of years ago
Satanism, Hinduism, Jainism
Buddhism, Sikhism, Evolutionism
The biblical account of physical
natural laws recorded by Moses.
Day 1--God created light.
Day 2--God created the firmament.
Day 3--God separated the continents
and created plants.
Day 4--God created the sun,
moon, and stars.
Day 5--God created the animal
life in the water and in the air.
Day 6--God created land animals
Day 7--God rested. (This act
is the precedence given for the 4th commandment regarding
the Sabbath written in Genesis by Moses.)
3941* B.C.--Adam and Eve
created in Eden, Mesopotamia. (*Dated by Moses'
genealogical records in the Old Testament of the Bible. Archbishop
in 1656 A.D. and estimated the date to be 4004 B.C. The Septuagint,
version of the Hebrew Old Testament, dates at 5315 B.C.)
3940 B.C.--Adam and Eve violate
God's law and are exiled from Eden.*
3880* or 3875 B.C.--Cain murders
Abel and is exiled for breaking God's law.
(This is more evidence of God's law or natural law of freewill being
2285 B.C.--Noah worships God
near the mountains of Ararat after God judged the earth
with a flood.* (This event is echoed in the folklore from the Australian
aborigines to the North American Cherokee. The Ussher date is
2348 B.C. and the Septuagint is considered to be 3246 B.C.)
2160 B.C.--Babylon conducts
census for taxation and builds the tower of Babel.
2100 B.C.--Satanism, whose
symbol is a snake or goat, uses human sacrifice,
2100 or 2050 B.C.--Ur-Nammu's
Code, Sumeria. (trial testimony and victim damages)
1995 B.C.--Abraham is born.*
(widespread agreement on this date)
1896* or 1890 B.C.--The cities
of Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed by God with
fire from heaven.
1700 B.C.--Hammurabi Code, Babylon. (commerce, slavery, marriage,
punishment; an eye for an eye concept)
1500 B.C.--Hinduism, India.
Around 1500 B.C.--Gambling
is a crime in Egypt.
1356* or 1526 or 1571
has Hebrew male babies murdered.
1280-880 B.C.--The Laws of Manu, India. (contracts and criminal law)
1275* or 1445 or 1491
B.C.--The Ten Commandments by the Israelite, Moses.
(The formal natural
laws of freewill,
ordinances, and punishment which
included either death or compensation to the victim by the criminal.
cover the behavior of individuals and the institutions of family, church,
business, and government and their subsets.)
1025-926 B.C.--Saul, David
and Solomon have a unified Hebrew monarchy.* (dates vary)
1004* or 1056 B.C.--Saul consults
a witch and God punishes him with death by suicide.
900 B.C.--Hebrew King Asa
purges the sodomites and destroys idols.*
868-847 B.C.--Asa's son
Jehoshaphat establishes regional courts and a supreme court in
Jerusalem. He purges sodomites and Baal worshipers.*
763 B.C.--Eclipse recorded
by Assyrians. (most agree on this date)
628-527 or 600 B.C.--Zoroastrianism,
624 or 621 B.C.--Draco's
Code in Athens, Greece. (harsh punishment called draconian)
600 B.C.--Lycergus Law in
Sparta, Greece. (murdered deformed children)
599-527 B.C.--Jainism, India.
593 B.C.--Solon's Code in
Athens, Greece. (reformed Draco's law)
580 B.C.--Taoism, China.
563-483 B.C.--Buddhism, India.
536 B.C.--The Book of punishments,
China. (limited punishments)
451-448 B.C.--The Twelve Tables, Rome. (established a class society)
400 B.C.--The Hippocratic
375 B.C.--Plato's Republic
Around 350 B.C.--The Chinese
code of Li K'vei. (theft, prison, model for T'ang Code)
331 B.C.--Alexander captured
Egypt and established law.
330 B.C.--Aristotle's Politics
313 B.C.--Edict of Milan, Rome. (religious freedom)
287 B.C.--Hortensian Law, Rome. (plebiscites and the senate)
6* or 4** B.C.--Jesus the
Christ is born to a virgin, Bethlehem. Jesus' human genealogy
to Adam is recorded in the New Testament of the Bible. (**Dated by Josephus.)
5* or 4 B.C.--Herod (74-4
B.C.) has male infants in Bethlehem murdered to kill Jesus.
Ending of the B.C. period
and beginning of the period A.D. (There isn't a 0 year.)
28--Jesus said that unless
one believes Moses one does not believe him.*
28--The beatitudes by Jesus
at the Sermon on the Mount.*
29--Jesus confirmed the law
to love God with all one's heart, soul and mind
and thy neighbor as one's self.*
30--Jesus is crucified and
resurrected. Christianity is expanded.*
53--Paul's letter to the
Corinthians tells Christians to not go before pagan courts for
disputes. Instead, Christians are to judge their own matters according
to God's law.
54-68--Nero is the Roman emperor
and married a teenage boy.
112-113--Pliny and Trajan, Bithynia. (Christianity is a capital
Christianity the religion of the Roman Empire.
529--Justinian Law, Byzantine. (books codified Roman
Law, Corpus Juris Civilis)
602--Laws of Aethelberht (Anglo-Saxon code of law)
604--The Seventeen Article
Constitution of Japan.
618-907--Taoism is the state
religion of the Tang Dynasty.
651--Islam Shiites and Sunnites
653--T'ang Code, China.
(501 articles that list crimes and punishments.)
890-892--Laws of Alfred
924-932--Laws of Aethelstan
and Roman Catholics separate.
in as many as 100,000 deaths.
1215--Magna Carta, England. (freedom of church, fair
taxation, prison, habeas corpus,
1215--Fourth Lateran Council forbids priests to participate in
trial by ordeal.
1274--Aquinas writes Summa Theologica.
1517--Martin Luther leads
the protestant movement with his 95 Theses.
1525--Tyndale translates the
New Testament of the Bible into English.
1603--King James I, England,
asserts divine rights of kings.
1689--English Bill of Rights
1765--Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England (4 volumes)
1776--The American Declaration
(all men are created equal,
inalienable rights to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness)
of the United States of America
1790--U.S. Bill of Rights (freedom of speech, press, religion
and trial by jury, cruel and
unusual punishment, unreasonable searches and seizures)
1791-1792--Paine's The Rights
1804--Napoleonic Code, France.
(private law such as property, wills, contracts, liability
and obligations) Quebec in 1865, Germany in 1900, Switzerland in 1907
Muslims of Iran.
Day Adventists, U.S.
Origin of the Species)
1863--The Red Cross
1864--The Geneva Convention (human rights in war)
1865--The Thirteenth Amendment
to the U.S. Constitution (abolished slavery)
1917--Lenin and later Stalin's
policies in Russia will result in the murder of over 25
1924--The cities of Sodom
and Gomorrah were found. Their excavation decades later
revealed they had been buried under over a foot of ash tested to be
unlike other ash material.
1925--U.S. Scopes Monkey Trial
began the movement to make evolution the official
religion of the U.S.
1930--Black Muslims, U.S.
1931--Nevada legalized prostitution
in Germany will result in the murder of over 6 million people.
1946--The League of Nations
name was changed to the United Nations.
1947-1956--Dead Sea scrolls
were found in Qumran. (verified that the current Bible
version had been translated correctly)
1948--The nation of Israel
1948--The General Agreement
on Tariffs and Trade, GATT. (United Nations agreement
on world trade)
1949--Mao's policies in
China will result in the murder of over 85 million people.
in Cuba will result in the murder of hundreds of thousands.
1962--U.S. court decision
to prevent students from praying in schools.
1963--First U.S. lottery,
1968--Hare Krishna in U.S.
1973--U.S. court decision
to murder unborn babies. In the first thirty years over
40 million are dead.
1975--After the U.S. military
withdrawal in Southeast Asia, the Khmer Rouge murder
over 2.5 million people.
1980--U.S. court decision
to remove a copy of the Ten Commandments from a school
following the reasoning that the students might believe the commandments.
1987--Slavery and genocide
of Christians by Muslims in the Sudan.
1987--U.S. court decision
that only evolution can be taught in government schools.
1993--U.S. Attorney General
declares that the biggest enemies of the U.S. are people
that believe the Bible is the word of God.
1998--Oregon law legalizing
2000--Law to legalize euthanasia
in the Netherlands
2001--Law allowing sodomite
marriages in the Netherlands.
2003--U.S. court decision
to end all U.S. sodomy laws.
2005--U.S. court decision
to allow a Florida woman to be starved to death because her
quality of life was not deemed worthy.
2005--U.S. court decision
to allow not only the government but private citizens to take
private property from owners for their own private use.
2006--U.S. President vetoed
a congressional bill for stem cell research which was to
extend research to allow the parts of babies to be nefariously harvested.
for the future are based on the chosen theology.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
© 2006 DALAS F. BELL, JR.