of Virtue Theory's Fides (fMRI) Neuroscience With
and Midrash of Time in Theology and Political Medical Care
Virtue theory emphasizes the
character of a moral agent (a being that has the freewill to choose
courses of action) in relation to Natural Laws (NL) in ethics, such
as to not lie, to not steal, to not murder, etc. Any virtue must
be universal for all beings. For example, all humans exhibit faith
inter alia (e.g. people expect the sun to rise each morning etc.)
which when acted upon (make concrete plans) in advance demonstrate the
virtue of trust. Trust is a decision based on perceived truth.
Trust is a belief in the reliability
of something by faith that that something is trustworthy. The
infinite Creator of all things (cause and effects) would not need faith
or trust in that He knows all things. Trust is from a finite intellect
toward the infinite Creator or not. Since the Creator or God is
immutable, He only is perfectly trustworthy. Finite beings can
elicit trust from other finite beings by demonstrating a behavioral
arc of coherence to NL.
Fides can mean trust
in an active sense or trustworthiness. The denotative (literal)
meaning of trust is to be reliable. The connotative (associative)
meaning of trust is well being or eudaimonia. Mauricio
Delgado is the principal investigator of the Delgado Lab for Social
and Affective Neuroscience at Rutgers University. He explains
that it is difficult to disentangle the types of factors of neural signals
of intent to trust from general overall feelings of happiness.
His interpretation of data is that it serves as a learning signal where
reputation is acquired and the intent to trust is actually a learned
representation of a potential reward. Is that happiness or just
realization that a potentially beneficial outcome happens if interaction
with this individual takes place? We can certainly postulate and
hypothesize various things but Delgado doesn't believe that design
can address that type of question. (The above explanation by
Mauricio Delgado was made in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr.
in December, 2009.) (Joseph Hornak,
a professor of chemistry and imaging science at the Rochester
Institute of Technology and Director of the Magnetic Resonance
Laboratory, expressed similar concerns
regarding specific fMRI signals in an email exchange with Dallas F.
Bell Jr. in December, 2009.)
Colin F. Camerer, a professor
of behavioral economics at Caltech, recommends his 2003 book titled
"Behavioral Game Theory" to address the language of trust.
(Colin Camerer recommended his book in an email exchange with Dallas
F. Bell Jr. in December, 2009.) Camerer's book defines trust
by saying a person trusts another person if they would loan money to
that person who doesn't have to pay them back but might feel obligated
to do so. If they pay the money back, they are trustworthy.
That definition can add measurement of trust, and has been used in
in Bulgaria, South Africa, and Kenya.
It is imperative for researchers
to be familiar with brain structures. This information can be
found in a whole
brain atlas. (See
references) It is also crucial to have an understanding of
(See references) The human body
is composed of water molecules that have two hydrogen nuclei (protons).
When the brain is scanned by the magnetic field, the magnetic moments
of the protons align with the direction of the field. A magnetic
moment is the measure of a magnitude and direction of a system's magnetism.
When the radio frequency electromagnetic field is briefly turned on,
the protons are caused to alter their alignment relative to the field
until the field is turned off. The position of protons can be
determined by applying additional magnetic fields which allow the building
of an image.
Camerer et al used a
multiround version of an economic exchange (trust game) to show that
reciprocity expressed by one player strongly predicts future trust expressed
by their partner. This behavioral finding was mirrored by neural
responses in the dorsal striatum. Brain analysis revealed two
signals--one encoded by response magnitude and one by response timing.
Response magnitude correlated to the intention to trust on the next
play and the peak of intent to trust responses shifted its time by 14
seconds as player reputation developed. That fMRI data broadened
the functional view of the dorsal striatum.
The neuroscience of another
economic game study showed the extent to which a player trusted another
with their money depended on the recent history of the exchange.
If the investor increased the contribution to a trustee immediately
following a round in which the trustee had reduced payback, the trustee
generally rewarded this perceived benevolence reciprocity with greater
return the next round. But if an investor demonstrated malevolent
reciprocity by repaying generosity with stinginess, the trustee usually
returned less the next time. Scans by researchers found that the
trustee's brain activity in the caudate nucleus was greatest when
the investor showed benevolence and was most subdued when the investor
showed malevolence. The caudate activity rose and fell with changes
in the amount of money trustees returned to their investor on the subsequent
round of play.
When exposed to a perceived
expert and an object, a recent study showed that long-lasting positive
effects on memory toward the object occurred. The fMRI showed associations
with distributed left-lateralized brain activity in the prefrontal and
temporal cortices. Memory formation effects were enhanced in the
medial temporal lobe (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus).
The caudate nucleus for trustful behavioral was also effected.
Experience shows that children that have been regularly exposed to being
lied to can be expected to not trust other people and to not develop
the need to be truthful or trustworthy themselves.
Trust is needed for higher
societal levels (from Q3
to Q1). People
are not to trust their hearts (Prov. 28:26), weapons (Ps. 44:6), wealth
(Ps. 49:6-7; Prov. 11:28; Luke 16:11), leaders (Ps. 146:3; Jere. 17:5),
works (Jere. 48:7), self righteousness (Eze. 33:13), or wickedness (Is.
47:10-15). People are to trust the Lord (Is.26:3-4), God's name
(Ps. 33:21), God's Word (Ps. 119:42), and Christ (Matt. 12:17-21).
The benefits of this trust is joy (Ps. 5:11), deliverance (Ps. 22:4-5),
triumph (Ps. 25:2-3), goodness (Ps. 31:19), mercy (Ps. 32:10), provision
(Ps. 37:3-5), blessings (Ps. 40:4), safety (Ps. 56:4, 11; 91; Prov.
29:25; Luke 12:4), usefulness (Ps. 73:28), guidance (Prov. 3:5-6),
(Is. 57:13), and happiness (Prov. 16:20). Trust among friends
requires reinforcement and verification with humility (Prov. 6:1-3).
In 1861, the U.S. Secretary
of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase directed the U.S. mint to make a motto
for the U.S. money that reflected "In God We Trust." Chase
wrote that "No nation can be strong except in God's strength, or
safe except in His defense. The trust of our people in God should
be declared on ours coins." Chase's letter was a response
to the Episcopal minister M.R. Watkinson's letter he received that
such a motto "...would relieve us from the ignominy of heathenism."
The heathen continue doing what they do by resisting trust in God.
Heathens are nonbelievers which are superstitious (Deut. 18:14), ignorant
of God (Rom. 1:21), without law (Rom. 2:14), are wicked (Rom. 1:23-32),
idolatrous (I Cor. 12:2), are without Christ (Eph. 2:12), and are dead
in sin (Eph. 2:1). They can be converted (Is. 60:1-14; Acts 28:25-29)
and become heirs (Eph. 3:6).
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
was a developer of the welfare state also called wealth redistribution
from the rightful producers to the non-producers. He wanted the
separation of church and state, critiqued the death penalty, and sought
the decriminalization of homosexual acts. He proposed the concept
of panopticon. This idea for prisons was that observers (-opticon)
could view all prisoners (pan-) at all times. That atmosphere
of omniscience would deter undesired behaviors. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger
is Associate Professor and director of the Information & Innovation
Policy Research Center at the LKY School of Public Policy, National
University of Singapore. He says that Bentham saw himself as a
reformer and that Michel Foucault's "Crime and Punishment" offers
a nuanced view. (Viktor Mayer-Schönberger's input was extracted
from an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in December, 2009.)
Foucault (1926-1984) was an
atheist who took LSD and supported the revolutionary government of Iran
in 1979 before dying of AIDS. He expanded the panopticon principle
from prisons to society. He suggested that a "carceral continuum"
runs through modern society. All people are connected by the supervision
of some people by others. Today, Tennessee law allows and encourages
citizens to report littering to law enforcement officials without proof
or the ability of the accused to face their accuser(s). Tennessee
policy is for government officials to immediately send an accusatory
letter to the accused.
Eric Arthur Blair (1903-1950),
pen named George Orwell, wrote of the panopticon society in 1948 (published
in 1949) titled "Nineteen Eighty-Four." Convicted of being
a Soviet spy in 1948 and for perjury in 1950, U.S. citizen Alger Hiss
(1904-1996) helped establish the United Nations. He served as
the secretary-general of the UN Conference on International Organization
(the UN Charter Conference) in San Francisco in 1945. It can be
inferred that this expert (Hiss) and the object (
Charter) are both
perceived as untrustworthy
in the long-term memory of informed persons.
In God's omniscient dimension,
He sees all things and time simultaneously. That panopticon can
be understood by space and time as being bent in shape. A thousand
years is as a day with God (Ps. 90:4; II Peter 3:8). Time is a
linear succession of moments but could reasonably be bent by the force
from God's dimension of heaven and hell. Time would not be a
Shahn Majid (b. 1960) is professor
of mathematical sciences at Queen Mary University of London and author
of the book "On Space and Time." He allows for the possibility
that time is a kind of construct and time not exactly bending to causation
but is related to what one means by causation and by what one means
by geometry. (Shahn Majid's comments were taken from an email
exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in December, 2009.) Majid
explains that if one subscribes to quantum spaces, one will be forced
to invent time. So not only is one forced to invent time, one's
original space variables only obey an equation which in the limits of
ordinary space (i.e. as one removes gravity effects) becomes Schröedinger's
The process of Jesus' Second
Coming of seven years begins with believers rising to meet Him in the
air. This could be explained by time being bent. Midrash
(Hebrew; to investigate or study) is a homiletic method of Bible exegesis
and is often used to refer to the whole of biblical teaching.
Midrash is used to fill in the logic gaps of the biblical text regarding
personalities and events, such as time conflicts. Alvin Plantinga,
a professor of philosophy at the University of Notre Dame, would say
that not everyone has sufficient knowledge to speculate on Christian
theology and time/space theory. (Alvin Plantinga's, developer
of the concept that belief in God is
"properly basic", sentiments were expressed in an email exchange
with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in December, 2009.)
It has been said that the collapsing
wave function allows for physics to distinguish between past and future,
between the realm of fact and that of possibility. However, the
moment of now and the boundary between chosen facts and possibility
still to be chosen remain undefined.
The midrash of time and theology
can be seen by the behavior during these last days by the resistance
to compliance with NL and the restriction of freedoms by government.
Lord Christopher Monckton (b. 1952), Viscount of Brenchley and former
policy advisor to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, points out that
Burke said about the
time of the French
Revolution that the price of liberty is eternal vigilance. There
are always people who would like to make us less free. (The
statement by Lord Monckton was made in an email exchange with Dallas
F. Bell Jr. in January, 2010.)
David Bell, Dean of the Faculty
of KSAS and professor in the humanities at Johns Hopkins University,
wrote that the French Revolutionary period (1789-1799) arose both out
of and reaction to Christianity. The revolutionary thieves raped
and used a committee to murder people they disliked and to attempt to
de-Christianize France. They replaced B.C. with the revolutionary
time. After their atheist's problems of not having something
to worship, they adopted the goddess of wheat to replace the infinite
God. When the French people were hungry, the elites used the economic
troubles and aberrant weather conditions to attempt to eliminate
change social institutions and change human behavior. China and
Russia had a similar series of revolutions in the last century.
Advanced communication technology between average people now allow for
truth to quickly refute manipulation attempts and should then be expected
to have that empowering technology suppressed by elites.
Anton Chekhov's last play,
describes the futility of the aristocrats to hold to their wealth by
slavery due to their lack of applied ingenuity and skill. Vishal
Mangalwadi (b. 1949) wrote "Truth and Transformation." He
recalls the scripture where Jesus tells of people that were given talents
and gifts by God. Some doubled their talents and gifts and were
told well done by God, as well as were given more talents and gifts.
One person did not increase their talents and gifts and was called wicked
and slothful and the talents and gifts were taken away and the person
was cast into darkness by God (Matt. 25:14-46; Luke 19:12-27). The
implication is that God has given all people talents and gifts to use
to meet their needs (Prov. 6:6-11). The ear that hears the reproof
of life abides among the wise (Prov. 15:31).
If someone cannot produce their
family is to care for their needs and if they have no family the church
is to care for their needs (I Tim. 5:16). People that expect to
receive without producing (slavery) are pernicious and are not in compliance
with NL. Those self-righteous thieves are socially unjust and,
ironically, are calling Jesus a liar and unjust. Whether poor
or wealthy they cannot be trusted (I Tim. 5:8). Elites often communicate
about non-elites emblematic of primatologists relating to another species,
such as apes. World elite's globalization efforts are beyond
a desire for power. They need to self-actualize.
Unfortunately, the World Health
Organization (WHO) does not yet collect distal
of health, such as beliefs and values,
because it is harder to apply quantitative methods for estimating
fractions due to multicausation, confounding, and complexity of the
causal web of determinates. (The preceding practices by the
WHO were explained by Colin D. Mathers, coordinator of MBD, HIS, and
IER at the WHO in an email exchange with Dallas f. Bell Jr. in December,
2009. Gretchen A Stevens also provided additional input during
an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in December, 2009. Special
thanks to Margaret Chan Fung, Director-General
of the WHO, for facilitating these email exchanges during December,
In conclusion, William Shakespeare
wrote in Act 1, Scene 1 of "
Well That Ends Well"
the following. "Be thou blest, Bertram, and succeed the father
in manners, as in shape! Thy blood and virtue contend for empire
in thee, and thy goodness share with thy birthright! Love all,
trust a few, do wrong to none: be able for thine enemy rather in power
than use, and keep thy friend under thy own life's key: be cheque'd
for silence, but never tax'd for speech. What heaven more will,
that thee may furnish and my prayers pluck down, fall on thy
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RIGHTS RESERVED © 2010 DALLAS F. BELL, JR.------------