The Art Of
War De Novo:
In The Tensor Fields Of The Strategic Battlespace
1. On War
War can be defined as a state
of struggle between opposing forces for a particular end.
Since the forces are opposed, one of the forces requires a particular
end while the other force does not require that particular end.
We know that physical natural laws (NLP) exist such as gravity.
It is reasoned that for justice, a natural law (NL) of human freewill (NLF), to exist
enforcement is required. If it is spuriously thought that since
justice has an eternal dimension it need not be presently enforced,
then other NLF such as love need not be acted upon either. The
end required by a warring force that is most compliant with NL could
be concluded to have the most just cause.
Just war(s) have been opposed
by segments of societies for the stated purpose of preventing violence. Violence means to violate or break so as to
abuse. A just war is just because it seeks to stop violations
of NL. Opposition to a just war for the reason of opposing violence suggests a lack of understanding of
the meaning of violence.
A just war is redemptive (meaning
to buy back or free from harm). A redemptive end or cause is opposed
to a violent end or cause. Redemption requires the appropriate
force be used to stop the lawless force of violence. The act of
war is seen by some people as being chaotic much like seeing and hearing
a crew of carpenters sawing and hammering. This view fails to
realize that is how homes are constructed and maintained.
The writings of Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) have led some people to
oppose wars due to a naïve conclusion that this is biblically supported.
They often cite the NL of not killing , or say that people are not
to judge others , or point out that one's enemies should be given
water and fed. Honest efforts to understand the Bible requires
reading it from the explicit (perfectly clear) to the implicit (implied
essence). If a passage is implicit then it may be verified by
explicit passages throughout the Bible.
Proverbs is a book of wisdom
(the application of law) as demonstrated by one verse which says that
fools are to be left alone so they don't think they are wise  and
the next verse which says fools are to be confronted to stop their stupidity.
Balance of biblical teachings are necessary for understanding.
Throughout the Bible roles
are assigned to individuals and the institutions of family, church,
business, and government. Individuals, families, churches and
businesses are not authorized to take human life except in self-defense.
The verse in Proverbs says we are to stop the innocent from being killed.
We are also told not to judge others but we know this is necessary for
(government) courts to operate. Individuals are commanded to
provide water and food to enemies  yet the government does not bear
the sword in vain.
Oddly, Jesus is given as an
example of passivity. The sinless (not violating NL in thought
or behavior) Jesus whipped the money changers in the temple.
This confirmed the Old Testament proverb that a rod is made for the
back of those that are void of understanding. It is not recorded
that Jesus considered the outcome of His behavior as causing those He
whipped to be either more or less prone to reciprocal behavior.
It does indicate that His stopping the violations of NL was the superior
response to the alternatives. Jesus' act didn't disturb the
peace because the abusers had already disturbed the peace. Jesus,
the Redeemer, restored the peace by force.
On being questioned before
allowing Himself to be unjustly crucified, Jesus said if His kingdom
was of this world then His servants would fight. That act
was not passive but was an offensive maneuver to achieve the strategic
victory for salvation. The record of Jesus in the New Testament
confirmed the law of the Old Testament that all behaviors are not equal.
Therefore, the case is made for the necessity of domestic and foreign
enforcement of justice. This explains both why the violators of NL seek to discredit the Bible and why
survival requires a bibliocentric worldview.
2. Science and Military Science
In a broad sense, science is
a system of attaining knowledge by verifiable means. It is maintained
that inquiry should adhere to scientific method. Scientific method
involves observation, description, prediction, control, falsifiability
(eliminating plausible alternatives), and causal explanation.
The basic cycle of hypotheses, verification and formulation are composed
of the elements of iterations, recursions, interleavings, and orderings
of characteristics, hypotheses, predictions and experiments or tests
on all the others.
It is argued that social science
can't be a true science like physical science. Social science
is subjected to scientific method, as is physical science, except that
the data collection, formulating and testing of hypotheses are much
more complex since human intellect and freewill is involved. Social
science involves being familiar with physical science or hard science.
An equation of state is an equation describing the state of matter under
a given set of physical conditions. For example, the META formulae provide a mathematical relationship
between several states associated with behavior such as theology, epistemology,
individual behavior, societal behavior and eschatology. When conditions are applied to humans, much like gold
or hydrogen, a specific response is expected. However, with humans
the behavior is analyzed by a probability of options. Those options
are not infinite as demonstrated in game theory and decision theory. If gold is heated to its melting
point it will melt or if water is heated to its boiling point it will
boil. If the human body is heated to a point it will die. That
observation is germane to both physical and social science. If
humans put their hand in boiling water, ceteris paribus, their
reaction of pulling back their hands is virtually certain though not
guaranteed. The categories of human options react to NLF and NLP
from a theological core of right and wrong.
It may be supposed that the
so-called hard sciences are in reality the least complicated sciences.
A coterie in the hard sciences fears knowing the implications
of the social science. Those in the social science may be intimidated
by the rigor of the hard sciences. That gap remains a testament
to those foibles.
2.2. Military Science
Military science encompasses
the six military areas of organization, education and training, history,
geography, technology and equipment, and strategy and doctrine.
>Education and training would include setting boundaries of
soldier's behavior with military law formed from the nation-state law. The nation-state law is from the respective constitutional
For example, George Washington's
(1732-1799) General Orders of
July 4, 1775, recorded
in the Library of Congress say that he required observance of the articles
of war established for the Governance of the army, which forbade cursing,
swearing and drunkenness; And in like manner required all officers and
soldiers not engaged on active duty to punctually attend divine Service
to implore the blessings of heaven upon the means used for safety and
Washington's orders were
compliant with the NLF of having no other gods, not blaspheming and
keeping the Sabbath holy. These laws were consistent with colonial
laws that complied with NLF. For example, the Fundamental Orders
of Connecticut (1638-39) established the first written constitution
in America and its predecessor the U.S. Constitution. It stated
the Governor and his six elected officials would have power to administer
justice according to the laws established; and for want thereof according
to the rule of the word of God (Bible). A universal lawful order
or laws of engagement would also be in compliance with NLF.
Karl Von Clausewitz (1780-1831) wrote that war is not
an individual act but is a continuation of policy by other means.
Once the strategy of war is accepted, war must be pursued
with vigor. A business model of doing the most for the least cost
or rewarding the prolonging of the effort is not acceptable. The
reality of a budget must be accommodated but cheapness is not a virtue
for a just war any more than is cheapness in choosing the medicine or
doctor for a seriously ill baby.
William Ross Ashby's (1903-1972)
Law of Requisite Variety stipulates that the larger variety of actions
available to a control system, the larger the variety of perturbations
it is able to compensate. This simple notion must be considered
by probability that the more capabilities a force has the more options
are available for conflict. The largeness of available actions
in a control system may not correlate to the perturbations desired and
thus be irrelevant. In other words, people that have behavior
which is at times both compliant with NLF and not compliant with corresponding
NLF would seem more adept at compensating life's perturbations than
those that attempt to always comply with NLF. The latter behavior
may seem limited but is harmonious with NLF and offers more compensation
than those that violate NLF. The problem is in the wrong implication
that there is innate efficiency in the variety as opposed to the type.
The law is shown not to be a complete statement of truth compelled by authority and so is not
really a law. The premise is more aptly described as a principle
which reflects the realities of law.
3. Tensor Fields of the Strategic Battlespace
Quantum mechanics is acknowledged
to be emerging from physics into non-quantum domains such as human language
and political science. Those domains are also complimented by
monotonic and non-monotonic reasoning. Monotonic logic or reasoning
may be used for hypotheses of any derived fact that can be extended
with additional assumptions. Non-monotonic logic uses default
reasoning (facts may be known only because of the lack of contrary evidence),
abductive reasoning (deduced facts), reasoning (ignorance of the fact
may be retracted when the fact is known), and belief revision (revising
beliefs when new facts contradict the old facts.)
Continuum mechanics is a branch
of physics that uses tensors. A tensor (L. tensus meaning
to stretch), first used in 1846, is a general linear quantity or entity
that can be expressed as a multi-dimensional array relative to a choice
basis. General relativity is formulated with tensors. A
tensor field associates a tensor value with every point on a manifold.
Most quantities in the physical sciences can be expressed as tensors.
It may be helpful to use tensors
for the differentiable principles for war. The principles of war
are behavioral vectors such as mass which are not directionless.
They are types of strategies in the battlespace which comply with NLF,
another vector direction. A strategic battlespace has many possible
vectors or tensors. For example, describing the response of massing
in an epistemological
2 (E2) level military
battle where the NLF E2 momentum is a vector which the massing military
should respond with acceleration, which is also a vector. That
military acceleration may not be in the same direction as the mass.
The relationship between the military E2 momentum and acceleration is
linear. This tensor of type is 1,1 because undulating behavior
or waves occur between compliance with NLF and noncompliance with NLF
within the systematic political science E1, E2 and E3 vector space.
Like solitons, the conflicting behavior interacts. The strategic
battlespace is obviously composed of NLP in the physical dimensions
of air, land, sea, etc. It must also operate within NLF in the
3.1 Physical Principles or Tensors
The physical principles of
war have traditionally been the milieu for the art of war. Sun Tzu (c. 500 B.C.) wrote on the art of
war from the spiritual viewpoint of Taoism. In 390 A.D., Publius Flavius
book titled De Re Militari espoused the military principles and virtues
that made Rome great, such as soldier's courage and their oath to
God (the Father), Christ (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit. Niccolo Machiavelli's (1469-1527) writings on war ignored
the Christian code of chivalry and postulated that all behavior was
legitimate. Baron Antione-Henri
de Jomini (1779-1869)
observed that Renatus was correct that Rome was lost when its military
eventually reflected its society and lost their virtue and became effeminate
(like America today). Jomini opposed sacrilege, used math in his
writings, and was a rival of Clausewitz. Clausewitz was largely influenced by Kantian
philosophy. His nine principles of physical warfare are used today
by militaries. They are verified by biblical examples from many
--Economy of Force 
--Unity of Command 
(Explanations and subsets of
each principle are available from many texts on the subject.)
Aspects of these western principles
can be found in the Russian principles of war. They are high combat
readiness, surprise, aggressiveness and decisiveness, persistence and
initiative, combined arms coordination and joint operations, decisive
concentration of forces, deep battle operations, information warfare,
exploitation of moral/political factors, firm and continuous command
and control, comprehensive combat support and timely restoration of
reserves, and combat potential.
Over the years many scholars
have sought to alter the nine principles with no success. The
latest trend is to add asymmetric warfare to the list. Asymmetric
warfare describes two opposing forces of unequal strength with both
attempting to take advantage of strengths and weaknesses. No two
forces have ever been perfectly equal. Asymmetric forces are just
using economy of force, mass, simplicity or force multiplication such
as a terrain advantage. Biblical examples were siege , battering
rams , arrows , etc. In time, it is likely the asymmetric
emphasis will go the way of other redundant proposals.
3.2. Spiritual Principles or Tensors
Philosophically, the laws of
nature must have at some point in time come into existence due to an
eternal establishing authority. Their existence allowed for Clausewitz's
principles to be noted. The Divine authority that established
the laws for the physical domain would have also established laws for
a spiritual domain. That spiritual domain would be subject to
NLF as is the physical domain. Then to ignore principles in the
spiritual domain or battlespace would be as perilous as ignoring the
principles in the physical domain or battlespace which Renatus and Jomini
The NLF are found in the Bible.
Therefore, it is also the likely place to find the spiritual principles
of war and their implied subsets. A major writer in the New Testament
was Paul. He was born Saul of Tarsus in Cilicia around 5 A.D.
From 20 A.D. to 25 A.D. he studied  with the pharisaic teacher of
law, Gamaliel. Gamaliel sat on the supreme court called the Sanhedrin.
Paul quickly gained a reputation for his scholarship in law and for
having a rhetoric style like Cicero. He headed up a movement to
oppose Christians. In 35 A.D., Paul had the widely known Damascus
conversion to Christianity. He was imprisoned and thought
to have been beheaded by Nero in 62 or 64 A.D. for his Christian beliefs.
Some scholars believe that Paul was released and went to Asia Minor
and Crete to write the biblical books of Timothy and Titus (c.62-68
A.D.) Passages from Paul's letter to the Ephesians  contain
spiritual principles for warfare that have been successfully used by
individual soldiers* for nearly two thousand years. The following
Pauline principles of spiritual warfare reflect the new Divine covenant
fulfilled in Christ Jesus.
--Sword of the Spirit 
--Prayer and Supplication 
--Making known the Gospel 
(Explanations and subsets for
each principle are alluded to in the monotonic reference material.)
The design of spiritual warfare
can be seen by one or more improbable events that work together to negatively
effect a situation. God says that no weapon formed against
us* shall prosper. It can be reasoned that if God be for us*
who can be against us* because Jesus overcame the world.
Soldiers* should avoid worldly
(cosmos diabolicus) entanglements , display fruit of the
Spirit , deny self , endure , be self-controlled , be
alert , and wear the armor. Additionally, soldiers* are
not to be prideful , or be wicked , or have iniquity.
Biblical examples of violations
--1. Have no other gods 
--2. Make no graven images
--3. Not take Gods name in
--4. Keep the Sabbath holy
--5. Honor parents 
--6. Not kill 
--7. Not commit adultery 
--8. Not steal 
--9. Not bear false witness
--10. Not covet 
In looking at the art
of war anew, we
may determine there are many diverse tools for expressing and analyzing the principles of warfare. The
physical sciences have provided scientific method and tensor calculus,
among many other devices. Systematic political science provides
the structure for the social sciences. Combining the latest developments
provides a view of the undulating behavioral options in the tensor fields
of the strategic battlespace. When the anchors of NL are applied
it becomes necessary to include the nonphysical or spiritual dimension
to the battlespace. This complication forever prevents using supercomputers to successfully direct warfare.
It has been noted that NLF
is cataloged in the Bible. The Bible says wars start within ourselves , wars come from God's judgment
, and wars are decreed by God. We* wrestle against principalities
 and the foe is spiritual. Jesus said if God were our* father
we* would believe Him.  But some of our fathers are the devil,
and the lusts of that father we will do. He was a murderer from
the beginning, and abode not in truth, because there is no truth in
him. When he speaks, he speaks of his own because he is a liar
and the father of it. War will exist, despite human efforts
for peace, until the Prince of Peace comes.
Solomon said the fool shall
be servant to the wise in heart. This means that those who
comply with NLF will be more efficient than those that violate NLF.
Warfare is the unfortunate response required to stop violations of NL.
This just and necessary behavior should be commanded by those* with
expertise in the art of war. It is hoped this paper has aided
in that endeavor. We* must remember that we* have power over devils
but we* are to glory in salvation. The victory is already
won so stand firm with the armor of God.
* Indicates individual(s) that
are compliant with reference .
 Ex. 20:13
 Matt. 7:1
 Rom. 12:20,21
 Prov. 26:4
 Prov. 26:5
 Prov. 24:11-12
 Ex. 18:21-26; I Sam. 7:15-17;
 Rom. 12:20,21; Matt. 5:43-48
 Rom. 13:4
 Matt. 21:12; Mark 11:15
 John 18:36
 Josh. 1:2-4
 Josh. 6:20-25
 I Kin. 22:31-33
 Judg. 7:2-8
 Judg. 9:34-40
 II Sam. 10:9-14
 Josh. 8:3-26
 Num. 13:17-30
 Judg. 7:16-25
 II Kin. 19:24
 Eze. 4:2
 II Kin. 19:32
 Acts 22:3
 Acts 5:17-42
 Acts 9:1-22; Phil. 3:7-9
 Eph. 6:11-19
 Heb. 11; I John 5:4,5;
James 4:1-4; Matt. 21:21,22: Is. 40:31; I Sam. 5:23-25
 John 3:16; Eph. 2:1-10;
Matt.11:27-30; Rom. 1:16,17
 John 17:17,19: John 4:19-24;
 I John 2:29; Gal. 5:16-25;
I Peter 4:1-4; Rom. 3:22-26; Eph. 4:23-32
 Neh. 8:3; Eph. 6:11-17;
 Rom. 5:1; Is. 52:7; Matt.5:3-12;
Eph. 5:21-23; Rom. 12:18,19
 Eph. 6:18; Ps. 139:14;
 Eph. 6:18; Eph. 5:19,20;
II Tim. 1:7
 Eph. 6:19; Heb. 4:1-3;
Rom. 12; I Cor. 12:4-30; I Tim. 3:1-13
 Job 1,2; II Cor. 11:24-27
 Is. 54:17
 Deut. 20
 John 16:33
 II Tim. 2:4
 I Cor. 9:25-27
 II Tim. 2:3,10
 I Thess. 5:6
 I Cor. 16:13
 Eph. 6:11
 Ps. 10:4
 Ps. 66:18
 Job 27:9
 Exe. 20:3-17
 II Kin. 18:28-35
 Deut. 7:5,25
 I Sam. 17:40-50
 Jer. 17:21-27
 II Sam. 15:7-12
 II Sam. 3:26,27
 II Sam. 11:2-4
 Josh. 7:11
 II Sam. 15:2,3
 Josh. 7:21
 James 4:1,2
 II Sam. 12:10
 Ex. 17:16
 Eph. 6:12
 John 8:42
 John 8:44
 Eccl. 3:8; Mark 13:7;
 Prov. 11:29
 Luke 10:19,20
RIGHTS RESERVED © 2006 DALLAS F. BELL, JR.---------->