Systematic Political Science


Criminologia and Profiling Schemata: 
Modeling the Evolution and Devolution of Societal Laws, Crime and Punishment 
by Dallas F. Bell, Jr.

(The reader should have an understanding of the preceding papers in this series before continuing.)    

1. Criminology

The definition of criminology provided by Edwin H. Sutherland (1934) is accepted by most experts in the field.  Sutherland said criminology is the scientific study of crime as both individual and social phenomenon.  Since it is a scientific undertaking criminologists should collect and analyze data in accordance with scientific methods of verification and validation.  The Italian law professor, Raffaele Garofalo (1885), coined the term "criminology" from the Italian word criminologia.  In 1887 Paul Topinard, a French anthropologist, used the term criminologie for the first time in French. 

Crime (Latin from crimen) is a human behavior that violates a law(s) and is subject to punishment from the law making authority.  Physical natural laws (NLP) such as gravity are known to exist.  Likewise, natural laws of freewill (NLF) such as to not steal are also recognized to exist. Those laws preexisted man's knowledge of them and must be punished from their eternal law making authority called God.  Given the laws are from God they would be for man's good.  Then society has a choice to either comply with those natural laws and be rewarded with efficiency or not comply with those laws and be punished for the crime or sin. 

Around 3940 B.C. Adam and Eve were exiled from Eden for violating God's laws.  Cain was exiled for intentionally taking the life of his brother, Abel (c. 3880 B.C.)  Those laws or Ten Commandments and their subsets were formally recorded by Moses around 1275 B.C.  Jesus is acknowledged to be a great teacher by some people and to be Christ by billions of other people.  The consensus in Christology is that Jesus was a good man.  Linearly, if Jesus was a good man He would have been truthful.  In 28 A.D., Jesus said unless you believe Moses you do not believe Him.[1]  The evidence is clear that if Jesus is good the biblical scriptures are true and if they are not true Jesus was evil and not good.[2]  History indicates that followers of Jesus are efficient and form First World governments.  Therefore, Jesus is good and the government is on His shoulders.[3] 

Around 1700 B.C. the Hammurabi Code of Babylon addressed commerce, slavery, marriage, theft, punishment and an eye for an eye concept.  The Twelve Tables of Rome established a class society in 451 B.C.  Roman law did not include murder or theft as crimes because they were settled without government punishment.  If the Bible is true as reasonably demonstrated in the preceding paragraph of this paper and in other more thorough writings, the Bible should logically be used to evaluate not only the ancient Babylonian and Roman laws above but all past, present, and future societal law.

2. Societal Law

In 1834 the American lexicographer, Noah Webster, wrote on the value of the Bible and the Christian religion.  He said no human laws dictated by principles different from the Bible can provide justice or kindness and prevent crime and war.  Webster added that all the miseries evil men suffer from vices of crime, injustice, oppression, slavery, and war proceed from their despising of or neglecting of the precepts contained in the Bible. 

If the Bible is true as Webster believed it reflects God's laws.  If it contains God's laws, verba dei, it must be complete, solo or sola scriptura.  If it is complete it should be the sole legal source and is the necessary validation vehicle of the lawful Lordship of God over all human behavior.[4]  Biblical study (minus the instructional but uninspired Apocrypha) reveals the Ten Commandments and their subsets for their implementation in government law as well as statutes for the other societal institutions of family, church, and business.  For example, the descendants of bastards (also called illegitimate or not legal) are restricted from serving in church for ten generations.[5]  Divorcement is only acceptable for abandonment/adultery.[6]  Ten percent of profits in all business is to be tithed by being given to a biblical church.[7] 

Like Babylonian law the Bible covers the "eye for an eye" principle.[8]  This addresses the just punishment by the government and is not applicable for vengeance by individuals.  Biblical punishment for crime includes fines [9], restitution [10], retaliation [11], and capitol punishment.  Capitol punishment includes stoning [12] and hanging [13] the cursed with the caveat the body is to be buried the same day as it was hanged.  Prisons are for detainment of suspects until judged by the government and are not for punishment per se.   

The death penalty is authorized by God for governments to impose on violations of His law. [14]  The following death penalty punishments are listed in the Old Testament.

--Serving other gods violates commandments 1, 2, 3, and 4 [15]
--Incest violates commandment 1 [16]
--Sodomy violates commandment 1 [17]
--Witchcraft violates commandment 1 [18]
--Blasphemy violates commandment 3 [19]
--Disobedience to parents violates commandment 5 [20]
--Murder violates commandment 6 [21]
--Adultery violates commandment 7 [22]
--Stealing violates commandment 8 [23]
--Rape violates commandment 8 [24] 

It can be extrapolated that for the behavior of betraying a nation-state that is in compliance with NLF (treason) resulting in innocent human life being taken, the just punishment is the death penalty.  The selling of mind altering drugs for recreational use which have the potential for causing death might also merit the death penalty. 

The Bible says that all people have broken the commandments and sinned.[25]  Jesus said if a person lusts in their heart they have committed adultery.[26]  Jesus also set the example for individuals by telling an adulteress to go and sin no more.[27]  It is obvious that no one but Jesus lived or will ever live a sinless life but the physical act of a crime requires societal punishment.

A specifically hidden crime is covetousness.  This is a violation of commandment 10 and leads to violations of the other 9 commandments which have appropriate punishments.[28]  Violations of commandment 8 [29], stealing property, and commandment 9 [30], lying, each require the punishment of restoring all gains made by the act(s) with substantial financial additions. 

Psychopaths make the choice to reject all NLF or commandments.  Sociopaths choose to apply some NLF or commandments to their inner circle of relationships while rejecting all NLF in relations with people outside their inner circle.[31] 

3. Modeling

The META formulae contain the complete linkage between all behavior and parameters.  Simpler tools that demonstrate social networks are also useful (e.g. sociomatrix data in a dyadic form.)  One entry depends on another and the dyad (two) indicates relevance of material.  The columns and rows could be dyads of individual behavior and NLF, or religion and geography, or semantics and psychometric instrument results, or imposed criminal sentences and repeat offender rates, or law legislation and noncompliance with NLF, etc.  There is social network analysis computer software for converting the sociomatrix data to dyadic form.  Then triadic tools etc. may be employed. 

Agent-based modeling may be used to develop plots or swarms of concentrations of criminal behavior for a particular region.  Simulation models must be careful not to misinterpret statistical input.  Skewness and kurtosis should be determined to be normal.  Compare the number for skewness with twice the standard error of skewness including the range of minus twice the standard error of skewness to plus twice the standard error of skewness.  If the skewness value is in that range it is not considered severely skewed.  Kurtosis (Greek for bulging, curvature, convex) refers to the relative concentration of scores in the center, the upper and lower tails, and the shoulders of a distribution.   

A distribution is platykurtic (Greek for fat) if it is fatter than the corresponding normal curve and has low kurtosis.  Leptokurtic (Greek for slim) describes a high kurtosis distribution.  Some figures may not be perfect but still maintain the thrust of truth, i.e. the Juke's-Edwards' case to be discussed later in this paper.  Both math and words are symbols to communicate concepts and are equally vulnerable to deceitfulness. 

Zipf's law, named for George K. Zipf, models the occurrence of objects in collections.  The objects have length or size modeled by exponential distribution or other skewed distribution that places restrictions on how often larger objects can appear.  Using a variation of the technique with NLF it can be seen that commandment 10, covetousness, would consistently be the highest or most frequent violation with the least specific criminally significant punishment compared to the descending of commandments to the lowest frequency of violation but having the most significant required criminal punishment for having other gods, a violation of commandment 1.  The frequency is inversely proportional to eternal importance; an individual or society has another god... comparatively murders are somewhat more frequent...comparatively coveting is very frequent. 

Crime is not random like the probability of flipping a coin where two outcomes are either a success or a failure as in a Bernoulli trial.  At times behavioral statistics may seem like a function of random variables [32] whose integral over an interval gives the probability that its value will fall within the interval--probability density function.   

The manner and level of recording crime data varies significantly and makes comparisons difficult, especially between nation-states.  The reasons are the range of rules that countries use for multiple offences, definitions of offences, the quality of records and different legal and justice systems. 

4. Profiling Schemata

Consider traveling to a distant town and finding your self in a run-down part of town late at night as your car stops working.  All the buildings around you are boarded up and spray painted with graffiti.  You look ahead and see lights in a sign.  As you walk nearer you see (scenario one) ten twenty year old males walking toward you carrying baseball bats and saying what are you doing in our neighborhood.  They are wearing tee shirts and have tattoos on their arms and necks.  The sign reads pool, beer, and lottery tickets.  In scenario two the ten males are carrying Bibles and are saying can we help you.  They are wearing dress jackets.  The sign reads nightly Bible study.  Which scenario do you prefer? 

Most people would likely choose scenario two.  The mental picture created in the scenarios is based on knowledge and experience called schema.  Schemata include stereotypes, roles, worldviews, and archetypes.  The schemata for the presented scenarios would have included memory framework for appearance (tattoos and tee shirts versus jackets), behavior (aggressive versus compassionate spoken words and body language), theology (bats versus Bibles), social networks (drinking beer versus Bible study), education (lower level versus higher level), and employment (unemployed versus Bible students).  Those schemata may shift depending on experience and knowledge.  For example, you've heard of Bible study enterprises being fronts for organized crime gangs in that area and you also know that the pool hall was frequently opened late to celebrate an intercity baseball league for ex-drug addicts.  That information would likely affect the preference for the scenarios.  Schemata can be exploited and this is often attempted by business and political advertisers. 

All people have schemata and use them to profile individuals in situations to make decisions perceived favorable in an outcome.  Governments use profiling to determine unemployment and voting patterns, etc.  They must also use profiling to prevent and solve crime.  Criminal profiling includes the type of potential criminal and suspect for committed crime as well as the type of potential victim and violated victim.  A psychogenic inventory can be useful.  It would have the categories of family and personal history relating to compliance with or noncompliance with NLF.   

It should be expected that those compliant with NLF have no need to be criminally profiled by governments that are compliant with NLF.  They should be expected to resist being profiled by a government that is noncompliant with NLF.  Those not compliant with NLF can be expected to resist being criminally profiled by governments that are compliant with NLF.  All individuals are defenders of their behavior's faith, fidei defensor, and due to the punitive potential will likely be sensitive to having their theology profiled, criminally or otherwise. 

5. Evolution and Devolution of Societal Law, Crime and Punishment

The forming of the First World begins with an honest attempt toward alignment with all ten NLF in a constitutional agreement between the government and its citizens.  It continues to align or evolve for levels 1 and 2.  At level 3 it shifts away from alignment with NLF and devolution continues into levels 4 and 5 with near complete nonalignment with NLF.  The society is recalibrated by war or natural disaster or it is dissolved. The formation of a Second World society has alignment with 5 to 9 NLF in level1 and devolves in its last level 2 until it meets the same conclusion as the First World society.  A Third World society begins with alignment with 4 or less NLF until its ends with the same options as the other two systems. 

Neither people nor governments can serve two masters.[33]  Societal laws can't be both good and not good or evil and not evil simultaneously.  The ancient state of Israel did evil (violated NLF) under its leader Manasseh [34] and suffered the consequences but another Israeli leader Josiah [35] complied with NLF (did good) and the nation was restored.[36]  Babylon, Greece, Rome and recently Russia were split due to violations of NLF with individual and institutions criminally exploiting the reorganization effort.  The same fate seems inevitable for the United States even as the old Roman empire (European Union) is being reconstituted.[37]  

Contemporary devolution of societal law can be studied in the U.S.  A force for devolving was an organization established in 1920 called the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).  It was begun to specifically change the U.S. First World system of law away from alignment with NLF to a Marxist Third World system.  The ACLU's outspoken attorney, Clarence Darrow, defended the 1924 high profile case of the sodomites Richard Loeb and Nathan Leopold.  They were followers of Nietzsche.  The two highly intelligent and wealthy individuals confessed to murdering a teenage boy for fun after molesting him.  The prosecutor admitted there would have been no evidence except for the hand of God.  Leopold's rare eyeglasses were accidentally dropped at the scene where they dumped the boy's body.  With Darrow's defense and psychiatrist's assistance, the two criminals did not receive the death penalty.  That was the ACLU's and Darrow's strategy of preventing just punishment for the violations of NLF.   

Darrow had written and spoken of rapists and murderers in prison as being angels and no worse than those that had imprisoned them.  The French sociologist and anthropologist from the positivist's perspective, Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), believed crime reflected necessary societal change and was a prelude to reform.  Darrow went further and stated that there was no such thing as crime.  That psychopathic reasoning made Darrow the perfect defender at the Scope's Monkey Trial.  He defended his Third World theology of Darwinist evolution to be taught in government schools instead of the First World biblical theology. 

In 1877 Richard L. Dugdale released a study of the Juke's family.  It began with Max Juke (born in 1720; but not his real name) and covered around 1,200 of his openly anti-biblical descendents.  They had cost society over $1,250,000 for crime and pauperism which was an enormous sum for the time.  Only 20 of the 1,200 learned a trade and 10 of the 20 learned it in prison.  Almost none graduated from grammar school.  310 of the 1,200 were in the poorhouse for a total of 2,300 years.  300 died in infancy due to inadequate care.  50 women were notorious for debauchery.  7 were murderers and 60 were thieves spending an average of 12 years in prison.  130 more were convicted of crime.  440 were viciously diseased.[38]  No Jukes were ever elected to public office. 

The Juke's legacy was later compared by A. E. Winship to the Bible believing family [39] of Jonathan Edwards (born in 1703).  1,400 descendants were recorded with 285 college graduates.  13 were college presidents of Yale, Princeton, Johns Hopkins etc. 65 were college professors and many were principals of academies and seminaries.  More than 100 were lawyers and 30 were judges with one being the president of the Columbia Law school for 33 years.  60 were physicians and 100 were clergymen, missionaries, theology professors and army chaplains.  80 were elected to public office and 60 were published authors.[40] 

As astounding as the comparison between the Juke's and Edwards' families was, Clarence Darrow opposed Dugdale's figures.  Like many positivists that believe people are predisposed to crime for biological, psychological, or societal reasons, Darrow maintained that the Juke's behavior was society's fault.[41]  The ACLU today continues to fight to end U.S. alignment with NLF.  It comes as no surprise that they oppose government criminal profiling.  In a 2002 case they blocked U.S. ability to catch murderous terrorists and others who are still deemed criminal by courts.  Those same courts have forcibly removed copies of NLF from courthouses and other government buildings. 

That devolving effort is joined by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) which in 1994 revised its diagnostic manual to say that pedophilia (child molesting) is not indicative of a disorder unless the molesting act impairs the molester or their relationships.  If they are given the authority to declare something a disorder they can also not declare it a disorder and vice versa.  Child molesting is now referred to as intergenerational intimacy.  In 1998 the APA argued that sexually molested children are not harmed.  That same devolving process was used in the 1960's for sodomy.  Sodomy's name was changed to homosexuality and then to gay as it was determined that it was not a disorder any longer since they deemed that no one was harmed by the behavior.  Today all sodomite laws have been declared illegal and sodomites are getting married and touted as heroes by those not compliant with NLF.  The next step is the seeking of an end to pedophile laws and allowing marriage to children while beginning efforts to legalize bestiality. 

It is a category error to see crime among the poor and reason that poverty equals crime.  That is a failure to understand that violations of NLF are a choice that some poor people make that keeps them poor like the Juke's.  Some poor people like the Edwards' family reject that option and rise out of poverty. If poverty equaled crime then there would be no white collar crime, organized crime lords, or wealthy terrorists.[42]  The same category error applies to those that correlate crime to lower problem solving ability because some criminals have lower intelligence.  If this were so, there would be no intelligent people in prison which is not the case.   

The behavior of violating NLF (committing crime) is from an epistemological view of good and evil based on the chosen core theological faith, which provides religions and their parameters for concatenation behavior in pursuing common individual needs toward their theological eschatology.  Likeminded individuals then fight to have their beliefs made the law autopoietically with their specific religious law being the communication link within the social group of the allopoietic society.  This reality gives rise to incomplete observations such as social dominance theory (social groups inherently dominate other groups) and rational behavior theory (behavior is due to pursuing positive benefits or avoiding negative consequences). 

In 2001, the U.S. had 689 out of 100K of its population in jail at a cost of over $30,000 for each offender per year.  Many of these were from the over 20 million unprosecuted illegal immigrants.  Over 1 million unborn babies are legally murdered each year.  Unarmed Christian students are being murdered in government schools by their fellow classmates who have a Satanist theology.[43]  That psychopathic behavior is compatible with Darwinist evolution which is the only theology legally taught in government schools.  Today those murders are still illegal.  Billions of U.S. dollars are spent on sexually transmitted diseases.  Adult use of antidepressants has tripled in the past 10 years.  The divorce rate is 50 percent and the illegitimate or out of wedlock birthrate is over 25 percent.  From 2000 to 2003 there was a 23 percent increase in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs given to children which alters their brain chemicals making them unstable for future military service.  The 1999 U.S. Surgeon General Report indicated the APA believed that the children's hyperactive behavior can be treated by attentive school teachers and parents.  The Edwards' family and others have known this for millennia from biblical teaching.[44] 

The U.S. police force and military are tasked with enforcing NLF.  However, they are beginning to reflect the devolving society.  For example, the military is now allowing tattooed recruits (a violation of commandment 1)[45] noted in 1859 by Cesare Lombroso to be a sign of criminal behavioral tendencies.  Approximately one third of the U.S. military presence in hostile regions are mercenaries hired to meet the manpower shortages largely caused by the unwillingness of its criminal and behaviorally effeminate male population to defend their way of life.  Almost one in six U.S. military personnel are hormonally effeminate (girls)[46] and its ranks are swelling with numbers of those with religious theologies inconsistent with NLF such as Wiccans (followers of satanic law) and Muslims (followers of Shariah law) who have their own chaplains.  Shariah law does not allow women to be equal with men, murder or enslavement is legal against all nonmuslims and freedom of speech is not allowed etc.  The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) describes itself as one of the U.S.'s most prominent Muslim advocacy organizations.  In 1998 its chairman reportedly stated to a group in California that Islam is not in America to be equal with other faiths but to dominate.  He said that the Quran should be the highest authority in America and Islam the only religion on earth.  

John Quincy Adams said the essence of Islam is violence and lust and with them there can never be peace.  Winston Churchill (1899) said that no stronger retrograde force exists on earth than Muslim law.  Being sworn by the military to loyally uphold the U.S. constitution is not possible if there isn't honest belief that the constitution is compatible with the chosen theology.  There is an old story of a snake that asked a kind man to pick him up and warm him.  The man replied that he wished he could but wouldn't because the snake was poisonous.  The snake promised not to bite the man, so he picked up the snake.  The snake bit the man.  As the man was dying he asked the snake why he bit him.  The snake replied as he slithered away that he bit the man because he was after all a snake and that is what snakes do.  The U.S is surpassing the point of having enough Edwards' types to absorb the destruction caused by types like the Juke's.   

Members of U.S. police forces are routinely found to be accepting bribes much like their politicians do by accepting contributions from lobbyists.  Private security is being hired to provide needed protection.  NLF can't be completely stopped from being enforced because they are natural and are therefore necessary for survival.[47]  If the government will not protect the people they will be forced to protect themselves. 

6. Conclusion

There is a way that seems right to mankind but it is the way of death.[48]  Violations of NLF are from the devil and are manifested behaviorally.  Compliance with NLF are from God and are manifested behaviorally.[49]  Martin Luther explained that man is born to the bondage of sin and does evil by freewill (Juke's) and this is tied to damnation.[50]  One can choose to do good but will not unless saved by God's grace.[51]  Then one chooses good by freewill (Edwards') and has heaven as a future.  Evil could be chosen but only for a short period like King David who repented soon after committing adultery and murder.[52]  God is exalted both by judgment for violating His law and by His grace in forgiving the repentant.  This is why history repeats itself.  History is a record of compliance with NLF and evolution, and devolution when NLF are abandoned proving that they are God's law.[53] 

Finally, crime is not an offence against government but is a heinous crime/sin against God Himself.[54]  Solomon said whoever rewards evil for good will have evil always with them.[55]  He also said he that justifies the wicked and condemns the just are an abomination to God.[56]  Wicked men like Darrow, an educated Max Juke, use their gifts to pervert judgment.[57]  The Psalms say that God's good judgments and knowledge can be taught when there is belief in His commandments.[58]  It might be wise for U.S. citizens to be as Joshua who said as for him and his house he would serve the Lord.[59]  If all people complied with NLF there would be no need for criminology.  As long as there is lawlessness, governments will be needed to protect the lawful.  Conflict between God's laws and government laws are to be expected.  It is a righteous duty to obey God's laws.[60]  Government is a tool of God and is not to be despised or hated.[61]  Rulers of all God's institutions are to be prayed for.[62]  They are anointed by God for His purpose.[63] 


[1] John 5:39-47

[2] Matt.5:18

[3] Is. 9:6-7

[4] 1 John 4:1

[5] Deut. 23:2

[6] Matt. 5:31,32

[7] Mal. 3:8-12

[8] Matt. 5:38-42

[9] Ex. 21:22

[10] Ex. 22:3-6

[11] Deut. 19:21

[12] Lev.24:14; Deut. 21:21

[13] Deut. 21:22,23

[14] Gen. 9:5

[15] Deut. 13:6-10; 17:2-5

[16] Lev. 20:11-14

[17] Lev. 20:13

[18] Ex. 22:18

[19] Lev. 24:11-16, 23

[20] Ex. 21:18-21

[21] Gen. 9:6

[22] Lev. 20:10

[23] Ex. 21:16

[24] Deut. 22:25

[25] Rom. 3:23

[26] Matt. 5:28

[27] John 8:10,11

[28] 1 Tim. 6:9,10

[29] Luke 19:8

[30] Lev. 1:5

[31] Rom 1:21-32

[32] Matt. 13:13-17

[33] Matt. 6:24

[34] 2 Kin. 21:1-16; 2 Chr. 33:1-9

[35] 2 Kin. 22, 23

[36] Prov. 28:2

[37] Rev. 17:10-18; Dan. 7:20,21

[38] Prov. 13:13

[39] Prov. 22:6

[40] James 5:20

[41] Matt. 11:25; Rom.11:7-10

[42] Prov. 21:17

[43] I John 2:18,19

[44] Prov. 29:15

[45] Lev. 19:28

[46] Is. 3:9-12

[47] Acts 16:24,25

[48] Prov. 16:25

[49] 1 John 3:7-10

[50] Rom. 7:6-25

[51] John 3:16

[52] Is. 33:22; James 4:12

[53] 2 Sam. 11,12

[54] Job 31:11

[55] Prov. 17:13

[56] Prov. 17:15

[57] Prov. 17:23

[58] Ps. 119:66

[59] Josh. 24:15

[60] Acts 5:26-32

[61] 1 Peter 2:10

[62] 1Tim.2:1-3

[63] 1 Sam. 24:4-13; Rom. 13:1-5