Systematic Political Science

Neuron Manipulation Values and Probabilities in Systematic Political Science:
Exploring In Vivo and In Vitro Influences on the Human Decision Making Apparatus from Neuroscience and Neurocardiology 

by Dallas F. Bell, Jr.

1. Introduction

Knowing how humans make decisions to base subsequent behavior is of obvious importance to the field of systematic political science.  The billions of neurons in the body act like computer logic gates to process input and send output to other cells.  (Please see the paper by Dallas F. Bell, Jr. titled Logic Gates and Neurons: Intelligent Design and Programming Found in Computers and Neuroscience.)  Neuroscientists are making great advances in understanding all aspects of the complex human nervous system.   

For example, neurons found in the brain were once considered to be the only control of body functions.  In 1991, the neurocardiologist, J. Andrew Armour, introduced groundbreaking research that documented the neural processing and memory capabilities of the heart's nervous system.  That cardiac data indicated the heart is a sensory organ that encodes and processes input making it correctly called a "heart brain".  It can process information and make decisions about its control separately from the nervous system.   

As an embryo, the heart self initiates and begins to beat before the brain is even formed.  It has a functional "brain" that communicates with and influences the cranial neurons through the nervous system, the hormonal system, and etc.  People have known for a long time that fear and anger cause disease whereas love and forgiveness cause wellness.  Extremely stressful events e.g. war can be associated with increased mortality from disease as is documented in geriatric neurocardiology studies.  Social factors such as not being married or having a relatively low income also correlate to increased mortality rates.   

In the tenth century B.C., the Hebrew King Solomon was recorded to say that as a man thinks in his heart so is he.  Many centuries later Aristotle ascribed power of thought to the heart and contended that it also contained the soul.  Concerning neurons, it seems worthwhile to have a scientific understanding of the human physiology for decision making.  Then the values and probabilities of possible neuron manipulation become more evident. 

2. A Physiological Focus on the Human Decision Making Apparatus--Neurons

Physiology, meaning nature-word, of human neurons can begin with the neuron response to stimuli.  There is an unequal distribution of charged atoms, called ions, on each side of the nerve cell membrane.  The difference in distribution of ions on the outside compared to the inside is referred to as the resting state.  A basic state has a voltage of -70mV difference across the cell membrane.  This means the cytoplasm has a slight negative charge.  Two ions, Na+ (sodium) and K+ (potassium), maintain the state.  A transport mechanism or pump removes the sodium from the cell and imports potassium maintaining a slightly higher sodium level outside relative to the sodium inside. 

The nerve cell membranes also have passages for the two ions called sodium gates and potassium gates.  When an input is received on the dendrites from other neurons, and is stimulatory, it leads to depolarization of the cell body of the neuron.  Sodium gates open and allow sodium ions to flow into the cell which reduces the voltage difference between the inside and outside, thus depolarizing the cell membrane.  

An action potential is a very rapid change in membrane potential that occurs when a nerve cell membrane is stimulated sufficiently to cause depolarization to the threshold level of that neuron.  The membrane potential goes from -70mV resting potential to a positive value around +30mV within a few milliseconds.  If the membrane potential reaches the threshold potential of 5-15mV less negative than the resting potential, the voltage-regulated sodium gates or channels all open.  Sodium ions rapidly come in and cause depolarization.   

The spike of depolarization is called an all-or-nothing action potential.  There isn't a weak action potential.  Either the threshold potential is reached and an action potential occurs or it does not.  The depolarization is quickly reversed due to the voltage-sensitive potassium gates or channels which open to allow potassium ions to leave the cell and reverse the voltage spike.  The potassium departure may take the voltage to -90mV before returning to the resting state.  Because each action potential is all-or-nothing there isn't a decrease in the amplitude of the spike as it goes down the axon.  The frequency is the number of action potentials per unit of time.  Electrons flow and develop oppositely charged areas or mini-circuits.  The mini-circuits stimulate adjacent areas and create an action potential.  This is repeated and action potentials move down the nerve cell membrane and are referred to as an impulse.            

Action potentials are only transmitted within neurons and must send the message to the next neuron until it reaches it targeted cell such as a muscle cell.  The electrical signal may be converted into a chemical signal that is transmitted across a synapse.  The depolarization of an action potential at the end of an axon causes calcium channels in the membrane at the terminus to open and send calcium into the cell.  That calcium signal causes vesicles of neurotransmitters in the pre-synaptic cell to bond to the cell membrane and release the neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap.  They diffuse and interact with the receptor on the targeted cell which opens the channels in the membrane of the post-synaptic cell thereby changing the voltage difference in that cell taking about one millisecond. 

Excitatory neurotransmitters like acetylcholine make membrane potential less negative due to increased sodium making transmission of an impulse more likely.  Inhibitory neurotransmitters like gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) and beta-endorphin make the membrane potential more negative due to increases in potassium making transmission of an impulse less likely.  

Summation is the process by which a stimulus produces a response and cumulatively induces a nerve impulse.  Temporal summation is the transmission of an impulse by rapid stimulation of one or more pre-synaptic neurons over a period of time.  Spatial summation is the transmission of an impulse by simultaneous stimulation of two or more pre-synaptic neurons.  Material change can be seen to occur when thoughts of compliance with natural laws are entertained.  Likewise, change occurs with thoughts of noncompliance of natural law and that missing the mark of infinite standards is divinely knowable. Therefore, it is said that all finite people have missed the righteous mark of perfect compliance and fallen short of the glory of God. 

Neuromodulators are chemicals such as endorphins that regulate pain by modifying the response in the synapse; enzymes that remove neurotransmitters to allow a new signal across the synapse; and neurotransmitter transporters that reabsorb the neurotransmitters for reuse.  All those areas are vulnerable to manipulation.  A few common examples are Valium for GABA, parathion and carbaryl for acetylcholine, and cocaine and Prozac that inhibit transporters for excitatory neurotransmitters.  GABA is used to treat epilepsy.

3. Neuron Manipulation Values and Probabilities in Systematic Political Science

Several examples of neural manipulation were covered in the preceding paragraph.  They imply that neural tissue may be seen as a series of embedded mathematically describable systems that can be measured and manipulated.  Neural engineers study the sensor properties of neurons and can use the results to treat retinas or create cochlear implants.  The growth of nerve cells can be directed using lasers which could provide treatment for spinal cord injuries.  Genetically engineered neurons can produce larger amounts of the protein integrin which could enhance nerve growth to treat strokes.  If the protein actin had its equilibrium manipulated then so could synaptic plasticity which could offer control over learning potential.  

Systematic political science should qualify both negative and positive types of neuron manipulation as listed above.  Though the neuron's innate theological program can't be changed its response can be modified accordingly i.e. x response can be rejected and "not" x adopted. 

The first category in vivo, meaning inside a living organism, is meant to include the manipulation location of a subject or host's neurons have originated from inside the host. 

The second location is in vitro, literally meaning under glass which traditionally describes actions taken outside the host.  The term in vitro will be used to describe action taken from outside the host to influence neurons inside the host.  In vivo and in vitro have two subcategories.  One is manipulation action initiated by the host.  The second is manipulation action taken by those other than the host to affect the host's neurons.   

Each category will be assigned a truth value of either a (1) to represent compliance with natural law and is a positive manipulation or a (0) to represent noncompliance with natural law and is a negative manipulation.  A logic value for each of the three possible theological (T) tracks will correspond to one of the two truth values as either in agreement with the truth value and be represented by a (1) or not be in agreement and be represented by (0).  The combination of those values will create a set that can be used to determine high, moderate, and low probabilities for positive or negative neural manipulation.  An example scale can be seen below. 

                          (individual) logic values
(fixed) truth values
                                    T1   T2     T3
manipulation example x = (1) likely (1); (1-0); (0)
                       = (0)        (0); (0-1); (1)

A set with a truth value of (1) and a logic value of (1) indicates a high probability of positive manipulation for that specific manipulation area.

A set with a truth value of (0) and a logic value of (0) indicates a low probability of negative manipulation for that specific manipulation area.

A set with a truth value of (1) and a logic value of (0) indicates a low probability of positive manipulation for that specific manipulation area

A set with a truth value of (0) and a logic value of (1) indicates a high probability of negative manipulation for that specific manipulation area.

Other set combinations indicate only moderate probabilities for positive and negative manipulation for that specific manipulation area. 

It should be noted that if sigma-algebra is used that algebras over a set may not be inverted as in other algebras. 

3.1. In Vivo

Only the manipulation area and the truth values will be given since the individual logic values T template from the manipulation example above can be easily superimposed by the reader. 

self manipulation by the host 

diet (balanced) = (1)
     (not balanced) = (0)

meditation (on natural laws and confessing noncompliance or missing the
           mark including prayer to and worship of God) = (1)
           (not on natural law) = (0)

chemical (for health) = (1)
         (not for health) = (0)

manipulation by those other than the host 

diet (balanced) = (1)
     (not balanced) = (0)

chemical (for health) = (1)
         (not for health) = (0)

electrical (for health) = (1)
           (not for health) = (0)

nanotechnology (for health) = (1)
               (not for health) = (0)

3.2. In Vitro

self manipulation by the host 

read (natural law including God's scriptures) = (1)
     (not natural law) = (0)

stimulation (balanced including music) = (1)
            (not balanced depleting serotonin and/or
            adrenal glands) = (0)

manipulation by those other than the host 

dialogue (of truth) = (1)
         (not of truth) = (0)

propaganda (from untruth) = (1)
           (from truth) = (0)

corporal punishment (proportional) = (1)
                    (not proportional) = (0)

need levels (facilitate achievement) = (1)
            (not facilitate achievement or threaten a level
            including sensory deprivation) = (0)

stimulation (balanced) = (1)
            (not balanced) = (0)

4. Conclusion

It has been demonstrated that neurons like computers are vulnerable to both positive and negative manipulation either in vivo or in vitro originating for the host or from those other than the host respectively.  The motivation for the manipulation either is to be compliant with natural law or it is not.  The truth values and logic values can be combined to form sets which imply probability of decision making and subsequent behavior.  If the neuron potentials are compliant with natural law there is less stress or cognitive dissonance from the a priori theological neural programming than for noncompliance.   

Zeno has been credited with explaining that one can never get to a destination by distances of mathematical fractions such as traveling half the distance.  If one travels any fraction of the total distance, then travels any fraction of the total distance left, the complete distance can never be spanned.  Infinite concepts or truth have such characteristics.  They can never be reached by a finite intellect unless the destination is beyond the truth concepts themselves and to the embodiment of infiniteness--God.  This has been proven by those like Paul the Apostle who used Zeno's strategy of reductio ad absurdum, which means to deductively follow a path of untruth with logic to the point where its absurdity becomes obvious.   

The heart can live without the brain but the brain cannot live without the heart.  The Bible says that fools follow their own hearts and reject God's control.  Biblical theology was recently commented on by Richard Smalley, a Nobel prize winner for nanotechnology.  Smalley said in a simple nano fashion that Christianity works because it is true.  Sometimes called mankind's users' manual, the Bible has been historically shown to provide input that is complaint with the reality of natural law.  It can assist the heart and mind to function in designed harmony.  That positive manipulation of neurons will enhance a person's ability to achieve his or hers divine potential.  The highest potential was described by Jesus as coming to love God with all one's heart, mind, and soul and loving one's neighbor as one's self.  Everyone will experience neuron manipulation but we can use our freewill to choose truth and have as much peace as is worldly possible or not choose truth and suffer the consequences. 

-----------------ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2006 DALLAS F. BELL, JR.--------------