Genetics: Weltanschauungs of Natural Law, Crime and Identity
Genetics is a branch of biology
that deals with the science of heredity and variation of organisms.
In the 1800s, Gregor Mendel sought to understand mechanisms of inheritance.
Over 3,000 years earlier, Moses recorded that Adam had begat a son
(c. 3811 B.C.) in his own likeness
and image (Gen. 5:3). Moses also wrote that the father of Israel,
Jacob, selectively bred cattle, sheep and goats (Gen. 30:31-43). Around
61 A.D., the New Testament writer, James, noted that a fig tree can
not bear olives (James 3:12). For thousands of years, people have
known that animal and plant life produce the same animals and plant
life. This means a kind or species produces the same kind or species
with variations within its genetic parameters (Gen. 1:11-31).
Mendel observed that inheritance
occurs from traits called genes. All life has cells that contain
genes molecularly structured in DNA. DNA is composed of a chain
of nucleotides. Genetic information is contained along the sequence
of the DNA chain. Each cell contains a complete copy of that species'
DNA, called a genome.
Genes express their function
through the production of proteins. Proteins are complex molecules
responsible for most functions in the cell. Proteins are chains
of amino acids, basically, where the DNA sequence of a gene is used
to produce a specific protein sequence. Each group of three nucleotides
in the sequence, called a cordon, corresponds to one of twenty possible
amino acids in proteins. That correspondence is often referred
to as the genetic code.
Chromosomes are arranged linearly along the chain
of DNA sequence. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes in each cell.
This is two fewer chromosomes (one pair) when compared to chimpanzees.
Before 2002, Darwinian evolutionists commonly claimed that humans differed
genetically from chimpanzees by only one or two per cent and that chimpanzees
were relatives of humans. This is much like saying that the metallic
element of gold (Au has 79 electrons, 118 neutrons and 79 protons) evolved
from the metallic element of lead (Pb has 82 electron, 125 neutrons
and 82 protons) because of the similarity of its makeup. Since
the genome project's completion of mapping the genetic sequence of
humans in 2001 and the beginning of sequencing chimpanzee DNA, the recognized
differences have increased to around 4.8%.
Each gene contains hundreds
or thousands of bases. This means the seemingly small differences
in humans and chimpanzees is enough to change the amino acid sequence
of 83% of the proteins generated by the 231 genes on the chromosomes.
Major differences in the structure of over 20% of the proteins have
also been discovered. Thus, these differences discovered by geneticists
are greater than expected.  Those differences have caused some people
to question their Darwinian theological faith that produces their
epistemological weltanschauung (German; meaning world view), especially the core
belief of a chimpanzee and human common descent.
Reginald Punnett (1875-1967)
introduced a convenient method for analysis of small numbers of unlinked
genes. The Punnett square displays the male parent's genetic
input along the top (AB, Ab, aB, ab) and the female parent's genetic
input down the left side (AB, Ab, aB, ab). The intersection of
the vertical columns and horizontal rows indicate the square with the
predicted phenotype of each combination. For example, a fig does
not have the inherited genetic code to become an olive species or any
other species than a fig like its parents. However, a fig can
vary within inherited options such as pigment etc. This natural
selection operates like a decision-making matrix where the possible
outcome is limited to the parts of its construction.
The field of genetics includes
new disciplines that may be known by different names or by differing
parameters until one name and parameter emerges to become widely academically
accepted. Biogenetics, gene splicing or genetic engineering is
one such field. Those descriptive terms are applied to the manipulation
of genes generally beyond that organism's natural process. This
involves the isolation, manipulation and reintroduction of DNA into
cells in order to introduce new characteristics into the organism.
Another field is neurogenetics
pioneered by Seymour Benzer (1921- ). Broadly defined, neurogenetics
is the science of studying how genes control development and function
of the nervous system and the brain, and thus influence behavior.
Benzer realized that to differentiate between the behavioral effects
of nature and nurture, the environment needs to be constant and the
genes altered. He used Drosophila (fruit flies) for their relative
ease to study the sleep patterns or circadian rhythm. The fruit
flies were exposed to mutagenic poison to generate the mutation of genes.
Normal flies arose around daybreak every 24 hours but the mutated flies
arose at random times indicating the lack of an innate rhythm.
This seemed to show that the internal clock of fruit flies was genetic.
For the purposes of this paper
the genetics focus is on the field of behavioral genetics. Behavioral
genetics studies the role of genetics in animal behavior. Of specific
emphasis in systematic political science are the genetic causes for
behavioral effects in humans.
2. Behavioral Genetics
Francis Galton, a cousin of
Charles Darwin, is credited with being the first to study heredity and
human behavior systematically. Galton's controversial work in
1869 titled Hereditary Genius sought to separate the genetic from the
environmental to show the inheritance of intellect and talent.
Human genetics determines the
genes of what we are, such as having 10 fingers etc. Heritability
is what causes variations, such as having 12 fingers etc. An estimate
of heritability of a trait attempts to indicate how much of a variance
of that trait is due to genetic differences. This number is characterized
by a decimal .xx. Monozygotic (MZ) twins, called identical
twins, are derived from the same single cell and are an exact genotype.
IQ testing for correlation has indicated a .84 and .88 similarity of
MZ twins raised together and a similarity of .75 for MZ twins raised
apart. Dizygotic (DZ) twins, called fraternal twins, are derived
from two different eggs. DZ twins average sharing 50% of their
genes and have shown a correlation of .54 when growing up together and
a .46 correlation when raised separately. Given that unrelated
children have a correlation of .17, it would seem overwhelming that
the genetic component has a direct influence on IQ scores.
Genetic differences can lead
to phenotypic differences causing differences in the environment which
then can affect the phenotype. That reality often causes the misconception
that heritability is not very causal to behavior and environment is
most causal to behavior.
There are two categories of
behavioral genetics. The first is the study of the relationship
between predetermined behavior and the physical realm of natural law
(NLP). The second is the study of the relationship between behavior
with choice or freewill and the nonphysical realm of natural law (NLF).
The relationship between human
behavior and NLP is predetermined. It has already been demonstrated
that IQ gives the problem solving ability for a lifetime, unless that
potential is unnaturally altered. Like IQ, left-handedness and
right-handedness may have a genetic component. In 2002, C. Francks
et al. performed a genomewide quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage
analysis using a continuous measure of relative hand skill (PegQ) rather
than treating handedness (2p12-q22) as a categorical state. A QTL
on the chromosome 2p12-p11.2 yielded strong evidence for linkage to
PegQ and another suggestive QTL on 17p11-q23 was also identified.
Relative hand skill appears
to be a multifactorial phenotype with a heterogeneous background but
nevertheless is amenable to QTL-based gene mapping approaches.
C. Francks et al. (2003) found non-right-handedness to be moderately
associated with schizophrenia. Both traits are often accompanied
by abnormalities of asymmetrical brain morphology or function.
Unlike Down's syndrome where
there is an extra chromosome that decreases IQ, most traits involving
behavior have a complex genetic basis. A variety of genetic and
environmental factors are involved in the development of any trait which
makes the product of modeling and simulation to be in probabilities
of outcomes. Shyness may develop into social phobias, alcoholism
and determine types of occupations that are accommodating to abilities.
Having a genetic variance does not necessarily mean that a particular
trait will develop. Genes may turn on or turn off and factors
may exist to keep it turned off. The protein encoded by a gene
may also be modified so that it can behave normally. Unfortunately, disorders such as Huntington's disease have
a specific mutation that confers the certainty of developing the disorder.
Behavioral genetics that predisposes
behavior toward reacting to physical natural law without choice or freewill
is a growing field with many a pitfall or créé de cur.
For example, a 2003 paper by authors with Darwinian world views claimed
that cannibalism shaped the prion gene for all people as evidenced by
the disease of New Guinea cannibals (the Fore linguistic group).
A few years later the paper was disproved. (Violations of natural
law such as cannibalism must be logically acceptable behavior by evolutionists.
Deut. 28:53-58; 2 Kings 6:28-29.) Another example in 2003, Darwinian
evolutionists Z. Zhang et al. determined that the sequences of DNA that
seem to be nonfunctioning, called pseudogenes, are genomic rubbish.
R. Wiedersheim (1895) inaccurately noted that more than eighty human
organs were not functional and were rubbish. Scientists did not
understand organs then nor may they understand genes today.
The relationship between human
behavior and NLF involves choice. The NLF or Decalogue (La, 1,
2, 3, 4, Lb, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10) and their subsets have historically
proven their behavioral options to be a choice. Although, the environment
may trigger behavior and/or there may be a proclivity toward noncompliance
with NLF. If the proclivity for noncompliance is true then it
is reasonable that there might be a proclivity toward compliance with
Human choice is evidenced by
observing the same people at times that elect to steal and not to steal.
Other examples are lying, adultery, murder etc. An environmental
trigger may cause someone that is hungry to steal when they would not
otherwise consider the option.(Prov. 6:30-31; 30:9) There may
be proclivities toward alcoholism or the use of mind altering drugs.
The intellect can be used to prevent a situation that would enhance
the likelihood of those destructive behaviors. Adultery or sexual
deviancy may be proclivities, but acting on them would still be a choice
to violate NLF. All healthy adult married males will at some point
lust toward a woman that is not their wife. Those same males have
the intellect to not act on that proclivity.(Job 31:1) Wives should
have the expectation that their husbands will be loyal to them and not
act on adulterous tendencies. Their children should also have
the expectation that their parents be loyal to each other.
If a proclivity such as adultery
is fed by dominating the neurons with pornographic input the point will
eventually be surpassed that allows the intellect to have resistance
to compulsively acting on the tendency.(1 Cor. 15:33) In 2006,
Zhang Zhihe exposed sexually disinterested male pandas in a zoo to audio
and visual mating of pandas. They began acting out the so-called
panda porn by mating. Even nonhumans can be triggered to behave
toward a proclivity. Proclivities such as overeating or yawning
can be influenced by the power of suggestion.
People that comply with NLF
and people that choose not to comply with NLF form the institutions
of families, churches, businesses and governments. Those institutions
increase the societal efficiency of effort to pursue the hierarchy of
common individual human needs. The rejection of La, 1 and Lb endanger
the compliance with other attributes, e.g. love and justice or even
truth itself. The controversial subject of behavioral genetics
of the relationship between NLF and choice may be modeled and simulated.
3. Crime and Identity
Historically, crime has been
considered to be human behavior that is not compliant with NLF.
People with a world view of acceptable noncompliance with NLF, such
as cannibalism, logically do not consider their lack of compliance with
NLF as criminal behavior worthy of either judgment or punishment by
societal law. In the late 19th and 20th
centuries, theories relied on now discredited beliefs that criminals
were hereditarily inferior and of low IQs. In the 1960s and 1970s,
men with an extra Y chromosome (XYY) were wrongly thought to be prone
There seems to be a growing
consensus that crime is not completely genetically or not completely
environmentally influenced. However, concordance between MZ
twins for property crime (1 Cor.6:9-10) has generally been greater than
for DZ twins. Property crime for adopted individuals increased
significantly when a biological parent was convicted. Males exhibit
more property crime behavior than females. Opposite sex DZ twins
are less similar than same sex DZ twins. As demonstrated in
section 2.2 of this paper, freewill exists and allows the resistance
of the tendency to not comply with NLF.
In logic, true identity can
be defined as the relation that holds only between a thing and itself.
So all x and y (x = y) is true iff x
is the same as y. Finite humans use this logic to identify
others and themselves. Young school children may identify someone
as tall or short. In reality no one is equal to tallness or shortness.
Those identities are relational to the qualities of other individuals
and may be rejected or accepted depending on the world view.
The world view of the infinite
God of the first cause of all that exists guarantees an eternal change
and identity.(Heb. 9:22-28) This change comes when that God is
accepted.(John 3:16) Then His NLF (Decalogue) will be desired
to be complied with and that identity will be superimposed over the
past criminal identity or sinful nature.(Rom. 6:1-2, 14) Sin and
therefore death is inherited.(Rom. 5:12) Samuel was an ancient
Hebrew judge who was not sinful, but his biological sons took bribes
as judges to pervert judgment.(1 Sam. 8:1-5) Mankind's eternal
identities are relational to God and then to His NLF. Humans have
a choice as to which world view and identity they will accept.
Either the world view of the infinite God will be accepted or another
authority and standard must be epistemologically adopted.
Governments are beginning to
collect DNA to identify citizens for later oppression. Businesses
and governments are collecting data on individuals, such as credit card
information, to form identities for controlling and manipulating those
people.(Rev. 13:11-18) It must be remembered that the eternal
identity can not be stolen.
Progress in the field of behavioral
genetics is exciting and challenging.(Prov. 8:12) The more knowledge
man gains from science, the more reinforcement there will be of a weltanschauung
compatible with the infinite God of the first cause and His laws.(Rom.
7:5-25) All finite humans have proclivities (Rom. 3:23), but also
have a choice to follow them to destruction or resist them.(Heb. 12:4)
That idea is in itself a world view and hopefully worth emulating.
God is good (1 John 4:8,16) and just (Ps. 89:14). God's election
for saving grace is real.(Matt. 24:22, 31) God is not willing
that any should perish, but that all people come to repentance.(2 Peter
3:9) He will ultimately love whom He elects.(Rom. 9:11-24)
Mankind does not have an epistemological choice to have no world view
and the world view each person accepts will determine each person's
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Divergence between samples of chimpanzee and human DNA sequence is 5%,
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(2002). Construction and Analysis of a Human-Chimpanzee Comparative
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member at the Japanese National Institute of Informatics in Tokyo.
His comments on the surprise of human and chimpanzee chromosome differences
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G., Spuhler, J.N. (1975). Race differences in intelligence. San
Francisco: W.H. Freeman.
Segal, N.L. (1991-2003) Writings
on MZ and DZ twins.
Herrnstein, R.J., Murray, C.
(1994). The Bell Curve. New York: Free Press.
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(2003) Philsophy of Science, Vol. 70, pages 1002-1014.
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Criminality, aggression, and intelligence among XYY and XXY men. New
York, Gardner Press.
 Jones, O.D. (2006).
Behavioral Genetics and Crime, in Context. Comments by Owen Jones
were made at the Duke University Law School and in a subsequent paper.
 Baker, L.A., et al.
(2006). A paper titled Behavioral Genetics: The Science
of Antisocial Behavior.
RIGHTS RESERVED © 2007 DALLAS F. BELL, JR.----------------