Periodic Tables' Dependence on a Cosmological Constant (Λ)
in the Mereology of Natural Law as Seen in Joy and Madness
The periodic table in chemistry
provides the relevant variable structural information of elements that
compose all known things in the particle universe. The periodic
table of systematic political science provides the relevant structural
information of variables for the behavioral elements that compose all
possible political cycles in societies.
The Tytler Cycle, often attributed
in part to Alexander F. Tytler (1747-1813), observes that all nations
follow the same sequence: from bondage to spiritual faith; from spiritual
faith to great courage; from great courage to liberty; from liberty
to abundance; from abundance to complacency; from complacency to apathy;
from apathy to dependency; from dependency back into bondage.
This observation is a rudimentary description of the levels found in
systematic political science tables.
For each of the periodic tables
to be accurate there must be an underlying and unchanging law that operates
as a constant of mathematical precision. Galileo said that mathematics
is the language with which God has written the universe. Johannes
Kepler said man should investigate the world to find the rational order
and harmony imposed on it by God who reveals it to us in the language
of mathematics. The 1963 Nobel Prize winner, Eugene Wigner, wrote
an essay that described "the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics
in the natural sciences."
Henry F. Schaefer III, director
of the Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry at the University
of Georgia, writes that cosmology is the study of the universe as a
whole, to include its structure, origin and development. Within
that pursuit, the argument naturally arises as to why there is something
rather than nothing. The cosmological argument leads to the impossibility
of an infinite temporal regress of causes.
Robert C. Koons, professor
of philosophy at the University of Texas, has compiled 8 axioms that
address the legitimacy of the argument for the first cause to which
all effects are contingent. Of course, the skeptic can devise
ways to discount this logic. For example, aspects of string theory
can be used to interpolate cosmological explanations and be used to
produce eschatological extrapolation. Koons would insist that,
at the least, human experience warrants adopting the causal principle
as a default rule in the absence of evidence to the contrary where it
may be inferred that all effects have a cause.
The cosmological constant (Λ)
was proposed to describe the universe as stationary. Problems
arose with that view given the latest data that indicates the universe
is expanding. Steven Weinberg, winner of the 1979 Nobel Prize,
describes the Λ as the energy of empty space. It could
have any value, but from first principles one would think that this
constant should be very large and positive, the Λ would act
as a repulsive force that increases with distance, a force that would
prevent matter from clumping together. If large and negative the
Λ would act as an attractive force increasing with distance, a
force that would almost immediately reverse the expansion of the universe
and cause it to collapse. In fact, astronomical observation shows
that the Λ is quite small, very much smaller than would have
been guessed from first principles. This makes the measured values
of the Λ favorable for intelligent life.
Bruce Reichenbach, professor
of philosophy at Augsburg College, says that the Λ could be
part of the Thomistic version (from the philosophic school of St. Thomas
Aquinas) of the Λ, since the argument has as its initial premise
that a contingent being exists and the Λ would appear to be
a contingent fact. However, since less abstract contingents work
in a much more obvious way to ground the initial premise, Reichenbach
sees no need to introduce this notion. He believes that it would
not play a role in the Kalam Λ (a contemporary version of the
teleological argument), where it is noted that certain mutually unrelated
features of the universe have to be present, often within a very narrow
and improbable range, if sentient beings are going to exist which are
able to view the universe. Had not all these features been present
in their current range, perhaps including the Λ, sentient life
would not have been able to thrive. (Bruce Reichenbach's
remarks were taken from an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in
As in physics, there is a
Λ for human behavior. This does not mean that there is a
static human existence without an eternal dynamic equilibrium separate
from God's holiness. People are born and people die. Laws
set boundaries for this universe of existence and the existence after
death consistent with God's immutable character. God is always
on the throne (II Chr. 18:18; Job 26:9; Ps. 9:4, 7; 11:4; 45:6; 47:2;
Is. 6:1-5; Eze. 1:26; Dan. 7:9-10; Acts 2:30; 7:49; Heb. 8:1; 12:2;
Rev. 3:21; 19:2-11; 22:1, 3). Amid all change in human life God
is the constant. We see Him through His immutable law.
Children from birth do not
want to be murdered, do not want to be stolen from or lied to etc.
Those moral Natural Laws of Freewill (NLF) are mereologically combined
with amoral Physical Natural Law (NLP) to form the whole of NL.
God's NLP makes His sun to rise on the evil (unjust people not compliant
with NLF) and on the good (just people compliant with NLF) and He sends
rain on the just and unjust (Matt. 5:45).
Mereology (Gr. meros;
means part) is the study of the parts of the respective whole of first-order
theories. Peter M. Simons (b. 1950) used mereology to formalize
ontology and metaphysics whereas Roberto Casati and Achille Varzi used
mereology mainly as a way to understand the material world and human
interaction in it.
Dean Zimmerman, philosophy
professor now at Rutgers University, has discussed the mereology of
constitution. For example, some people believe that a piece of
marble constituting a statue, or an aggregate of particles constituting
a living body, involve two distinct objects in the same place at the
same time. Others say that these objects manage to share space
in virtue of sharing a temporal part confined to just that place and
time. Analysis of the relation of sharing all and only the same
parts shows that such part sharing is at least a central component of
and necessary condition for constitution.
Modal opposition to mereology
may explain that objects belonging to constituted kinds are the necessary
result of putting objects belonging to appropriate constituting kinds
in the right circumstances, circumstances which constituting objects
need not to have been in. For example, putting man-shaped marble
in the right circumstances, by uncovering it from chipping the marble
to reveal it, necessarily results in the existence of the second object,
the statue constituted by the marble. But, the piece of marble
need not have fallen into these circumstances.
Link Theory is a calculus of
composite abstract relations in tabular form. It represents what
is so or what is possible. This general theory of structure shows
how the core laws of quantum mechanics are derived from mathematical
considerations. Richard Shoup, co-developer of Link Theory, says
this theory and other theories of static structures do not incorporate
any dynamics or concepts of time. Thus they are incomplete with
respect to modeling any dynamic phenomena in the real world, or in a
computer, for that matter. What is required is the addition of
self-reference, i.e. feedback, or a looping structure to introduce sequence
and thus a dimension of time. (The preceding remarks by Richard
Shoup were excerpted from an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr.
during November, 2009.)
Proskairos (Gr. for a season of time) is composed
of the Greek words pros (meaning a direction forward) and
kairos (meaning season). Solomon said that which has been
is now, and that which is to be has already been and God requires that
which is past (Eccl. 3:15). He also wrote that the thing that
has been, it is that which shall be: and that which is done is that
which shall be done, and there is no new thing under the sun (Eccl.
1:9). Paul said believers are to forget things behind and reach
for things ahead (Phil. 3:13). Then time within eternity is not
static and is moving forward.
In time, man tries in vain
to fill himself with parts from his surroundings to be whole.
Pascal popularized triangular rows of expanding coefficients to find
probabilities called Pascal's triangle. He said man seeks things
absent the help he does not obtain in things present. He continued,
these things are inadequate, because the infinite abyss can only be
filled by an infinite and immutable object, that is to say, only by
God Himself. Only Jesus Christ makes men whole (Acts 4:9-10).
The joy of wholeness that this brings is everlasting (Is. 51:11), is
great (Acts 8:8), is full (I John 1:4), is abundant (II Cor. 8:2), and
is unspeakable (I Peter 1:8). Joy is attributed from God (Eccl.
2:26; Jere. 33:9; Matt. 25:21-23; John 15:11; Jude 24). Joy is
expressed in songs (Gen. 31:27), in musical instruments (I Sam. 18:6;
I Kings 1:40), in sounds (I Chr. 15:16), in praises (II Chr. 29:30),
in shouting (Ezra 3:12-13; Ps. 32:11; 35:27), and in hearts (I Sam.
Angels are also joyous (Job
38:7; Luke 2:10, 13-14). Jesus said that there will be more joy
in heaven over one sinner who repents, than over ninety-nine righteous
persons who need no repentance (Luke 15:7, 10). So joy can be
experienced by the finite intellects of humans and angels. Since
joy is based on a perception of circumstance, it is predicated on not
having known or experienced that circumstance. Thus, the gain
is not possible for the infinite God who has always known everything.
This does not infer that God
does not reveal Himself in a state of happiness. Matthew (3:17)
records God saying that Jesus was His beloved Son, in whom He is well
pleased. God does choose to take pleasure
in circumstances. For example, He said His creation was good (Gen.
1). It does infer that God may also choose to be grieved.
For example, He was grieved with the sinful world before Noah and the
flood (Gen. 6:5-7). These circumstances are from an infinite intellect
and not the result of gain found in joy or loss from unforeseen outcomes.
Jesus said these things have
I spoken to you that My joy might remain in you, and that your joy might
be full (John 15:11). He also said now I come to thee; and these
things I speak to the world, that they might have My joy fulfilled in
themselves (John 17:13). Jesus, being both man and God, expressed
a perfect joy within His man existence by pleasing Father God.
The Holy Spirit's presence facilitates man's joy (Acts 13:52; Rom.
14:17; 15:13; Gal. 5:22; I Thess. 1:6). Then, the strict definition
of joy puts it in the domain of believers and angels.
The joy for believers (made
whole by Christ's presence through the Holy Spirit) is not the same
for non-believers (not made whole due to Christ's absence).
Evil men delight in abominations (Is. 65:12; 66:3-4). Unbelievers
do not delight in the Word of God (Jere.6:10) and are pleased with theft,
adultery (Ps. 50:18), and wickedness (II Thess. 2:12). Folly is
joy to him that is destitute of wisdom (Prov. 15:21).
The soul chooses the theology
→ the brain inputs that rationality epistemologically → the body
calibrates its behavior in pursuing the common needs → like minded
people join to form their institutions of family, church, business and
government based on the soul's eschatology from its chosen theology.
When the soul chooses a god
other than the infinite God of the first cause, emotional and mental
derangement occurs--madness. Madness can be caused by disobeying
God's laws (Deut. 28:28) and by God's judgment (Jere. 25:15-17;
Dan. 4:31-33; Zech. 12:4). Madness is manifested by self-destruction
(Matt. 17:14-18) and moral instability (Jere. 51:7).
Euripides (c. 480 B.C. - 406
B.C.) is quoted as having said Quos Deus vult perdere, prius dementat
(Those whom God wills to destroy He first deprives of their senses.)
Jean Twenge, a psychologist now at San Diego State University, analyzed
anxiety scores of American children, ages 9-17. She found that
anxiety scores, on average, for children in the 1980s were higher than
the scores for psychiatric patients in the 1950s. Today, she adds
that the scores for children and college students are as high or have
increased even more. Twenge's books, The
Narcissism Epidemic and Generation Me, demonstrate the behavioral
alternative for people that reject God's wholeness and laws.
For them narcissism and self-love is rational (II Tim. 3:1-9 text is
paraphrased in the endnotes).
Without God's wholeness there
is no selfless love. Elizabeth Carmichael, a medical doctor, and
Fellow and Tutor in Theology at Oxford University, explains that love
is the fulfilling of the law and is the one virtue in which all others
are contained. (Elizabeth Carmichael's comment is from an
email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in November, 2009.)
So if God's constant of NLF is fulfilled then the monad of love is
possible. From love the subset of joy is possible through wholeness.
The joy of the Lord is the
strength of the believer (Neh. 8:10). This is why Satan tries
to detract from the believer's joy (Job). A believer's joy
cannot be stolen because greater is He that is within us than is he
that is in the world (I John 4:4). The prophet "who embraces"
God wrote that although the fig tree shall not blossom, neither shall
the fruit be in the vines; the labor of the olive shall fail, and the
fields shall yield no meat; the flock shall be cut off from the fold,
and there shall be no herd in the stalls; Yet I will rejoice in the
Lord, I will joy in the God of my salvation. The Lord God is my
strength, and He will make my feet like hinds' feet, and He will make
me to walk upon my high places (Hab. 3:17-19).
The joy of the believer is
contagious to other believers (Acts 15:3), and is a wonder and attractiveness
to unbelievers unto salvation. The Sumerians are credited with
naming the opium poppy plant the "joy plant" (hul gil).
Like other stupefying substances, it chemically manipulates and temporary
clouds reality to create a false joy (Judg. 16:25; 1922; I Kings 21:7).
After each use, opiates become less effective in counterfeiting true
joy until the user becomes both physically and mentally enslaved.
The term joy can be theologically
confusing for even believers. Studying God (theology) is not divorced
from experiencing God (joy). Theology often presents God in static
and academic terms almost separated from developing an intimate relationship
with Him. Thus, the process predictably and unnecessarily squeezes
The neurons that learn theology
must also process the joy from the heart as education takes place.
Then this highest human need to self-actualize can be achieved and sustained
despite one's circumstances. The periodic tables depend on the
Λ in the mereology of NL (NLP and NLF) as seen in the results of
joy or madness. Our joyful or mad existences are up to us to individually
choose and extrapolate our eschatology.
This know that in the last
days perilous times shall come. Man shall be lovers of their own
selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents,
unthankful, unholy, without natural affection, trucebreakers, false
accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good, traitors,
heady, high-minded, lovers of pleasure more than lovers of God, having
a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away.
They are the sort that creep into houses, and lead captive silly women
laden with sins, led away with divers lusts, ever
learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of truth. Now
as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also resist the truth:
men of corrupt minds, reprobate concerning the faith. But they
shall proceed no further: for their folly shall be manifested unto all
men, as theirs also was.
RIGHTS RESERVED © 2009 DALLAS F. BELL, JR.--------------