Systematic Political Science


The Entanglement of Biomimicry, Quantum Biology, Light and Time With Individual, Societal and Omniscient Consciousness

Dallas F. Bell, Jr.

(Portions of the following were accepted for presentation at the 2-8 May, 2011, conference Toward a Science of Consciousness, featuring Oxford University's Professor of Physics Sir Roger Penrose, in Stockholm, Sweden.)

Biomimicry (Gr. bios, meaning life, and mimesis, meaning to imitate) is the examination of nature's models and systems in order to solve problems and create. Mimicry can be repetitive instances of a process limited by laws of its environment with little variance or is the result of the purpose of an intellect.

A computer made by man stores strings of bits or on and off switches. That data is a record of information for a period of time. The computer's memory does not choose to forget data as the human brain does. But computers have been made to mimic the human brain's storage of memory into short-term memory (things just exposed to) and long-term memory (things deemed as crucial).

Recently, the mechanism for memory was revealed in the neurons of electric fish. When electric fish shock each other in dark waters, their neurons store memory of that shock's information by turning on special cell membrane channels. Those channels give the fish neurons the ability to retain the memory long after its original stimulus is gone. The short-term stimulation results in long-term changes in excitability or memory.

The electric fish researchers discovered that neurons' memories were not affected when the neurotransmitter, glutamate, was blocked. Glutamate set off a cascade of epoch events in the neuron that resulted in the activation (learning) of TRP channels (Transient Receptor Potential channels) which remained active for a lone duration. A fuzzy-rough set computer model has sought to combine its two theories (fuzzy and rough sets) so an inductive learning algorithm can be created and compared to the decision tree algorithm.

Consciousness comes from cum alio scientia (L. conscientia) meaning a knowledge along with something else. The knowledge is derived from memory. There is debate as to the something else. John joe McFadden (b. 1956) has written on quantum evolution and holds to the notion that there is no other structure for human consciousness than the property of the physical human brain. He also is skeptical of any quantum mechanical (QM) hypothesis. (McFadden's, Professor of Molecular Genetics at the University of Surrey, views were expressed in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in December, 2010.)

Shawn Murphy and Andy Schroeder, professors of neurobiology at Harvard University, believe that most testable areas of QM have disproven QM consciousness theories. (Murphy and Schroeder's views were excerpted from an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in September, 2010.) Steven Weinberg (b. 1933), the 1979 Nobel Prize recipient for physics, does not believe that there is any nascent research to connect the neuroscience of consciousness with physic's mechanisms, such as the Higgs mechanism. (Weinberg's beliefs were stated in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in February, 2011.)

Bernard J. Baars, an Affiliated Fellow in Theoretical Neurobiology at The Neurosciences Institute in La Jolla, wrote on treating consciousness as a variable. He said that consciousness processes can be defined operationally as events that can be reported and acted upon with verifiable accuracy under optimal reporting conditions which are reported as consciousness.

A Max Planck researcher, John-Dylan Haynes, investigated the relationship between consciousness, attention and dynamic changes in brain connectivity. The connectivity between the retinotopic representation of subjects was increased when they were asked to compare two stimuli presented in their visual field.  It is suggested that connectivity reveals how remote brain areas cooperate in mediating awareness and attention.

Rev. Nicanor Pier Giorgio Austriaco, known for his work on the ageing gene in yeast at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, explains that his best working biological theory of consciousness is the existence of a spiritual soul that is manifested in the system dynamics of the human organism. (Austriaco's view was expressed in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in January, 2011.)  The Bible says that though the outward man (temporal physical brain) may perish, yet the inward man (eternal soul) of the believer is renewed day by day (2 Cor.4:16).

Aubrey de Grey and his co-author of their recent book on ending ageing, Michael Rae, believe that the problem of age-related loss of cognitive function lies in rejuvenating the brain, rather than modeling, stimulating or (in the vision of some of the most bullish AI advocates) "uploading" human consciousness. (Grey and Rae's senescence research emphasis was relayed in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in February, 2011.)

It is often observed in neuroscience that there are breaks with physically perceived reality, as seen in epilepsy and schizophrenia, where destruction always occurs. There are also breaks, as seen in Christian religious' experiences, where construction always occurs, for example Danny Thomas (1912-1991) and his creation of the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital(s).

Michael A. Persinger (b. 1945) created the "God helmet", said to mimic religious experience, in order to disprove real Divine experience. He says the complexity of both types of breaks with reality mentioned above involve electrical transients within the temporal lobes (usually the right temporal lobe). However, the differences between fragmentation depends in large part upon the simultaneous integrity and function of the prefrontal regions. For the schizophrenias (which are a label of comorbid behaviors rather than an independent entity) there is a prefrontal dysfunction—hence the failure to organize and self-monitor. In the most positive manifestation, the frontal lobe is intact to direct the behaviors. However, there is one additional variable.The personality changes subsequent to a temporal lobe event also include proselytizing—the fervor to spread the word, a feeling of being "selected" and "viscosity"—perseveration or "stickness" of thought to a singular topic. These characteristics, often called dedication, can also contribute to Danny Thomas phenomena as well as scientific discovery.  (Persinger's comments were taken from an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in August, 2010.)

A persistent vegetative state is described as a neurological disorder in which the patient exhibits sleep-wake cycles without any sign of awareness of their environment.Patients in this state show no evidence of sustained, reproducible, purposeful or voluntary behavioral responses to visual, auditory, tactile, noxious stimuli, or evidence of language comprehension or expression. A comatose state does not have sleep-wake cycles and is usually a temporary state awaken from, unless enough time passes and the patient progresses into a vegetative state or dies.

Functional MRI studies were made to find glucose consumption in brain neurons and increased blood flow to indicate thinking by vegetative patients. Since the yes and no functions of the brain are in close physical proximity in the brain, patients were asked to think of playing tennis when they wanted to reply "yes" and were asked to think of walking around their home when they wanted to reply "no". Of fifty-four vegetative patients tested, five of them could understand the questions asked and provided answers. Of the five, two had zero signs of consciousness.  They were clearly aware of their environment, could comprehend language, and could provide meaningful responses.  It is possible that in the Terri Schiavo case, she could have been asked if she wanted to be murdered by her doctors or not.

NASA's Ames Research Center has found that using the fMRI to find temporal flux and consciousness runs into problems with ascribing changes in BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signals to consciousness. The question arises that if consciousness is only a natural physical neuron process then why is it so illusive to see and understand?

Societal consciousness is often referred to as collective behavior. Robotic systems have been created to mimic swarm intelligence (SI). SI is made up of agents that interact in their environment. The agents have simple rules and their interaction leads to the emergence of group behavior of which, as agents without self-awareness or consciousness, they are unaware. Ernst G. Ravenstein (1834-1913) used census data to develop "Laws of Migration" in 1889. He observed that human migration is governed by a "push-pull" process, where people can be pushed from one area due to perceived unfavorable conditions to meets individual needs (i.e. survival, economic security, etc.) or pulled to an area when it is perceived favorable conditions exist to meet individual needs.

Ravenstein's migration theory can be taken further by applying the sigma summation of human behavioral ethics to the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation used in neuroscience to find ionic movement. (See the Attachment to this paper to find a more comprehensive explanation of this process.) Such advances in so-called soft sciences are leading to them gaining credibly over the historic hegemony of hard sciences. (This observation was confirmed by A. Garrett Lisi (b. 1968), known for his proposal of a unified field theory, in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in August, 2010.)

In Noam Chomsky's book on manufactured consent, he explains how businesses manipulate societal consciousness. Businesses develop advertising strategies to create an awareness of their products which people do not really need. When the false desire is established a societal trend of purchasing the products develop leading to an economic danse macabre (F.) or todtentanz (Ger.).  

Quantum biology applies QM and theoretical chemistry to biological problems and objects.Such processes involve chemical reactions, light absorption, formation and transfer of excited electrical states and energy, and the transfer of electrons and protons of hydrogen ions in chemical processes as seen in photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

Recently, quantum biologists observed photosynthesis in marine algae and discovered that algae uses QM to optimize photosynthesis.  They stimulated proteins with femtosecond laser pulses to mimic the absorption of sunlight. This enabled the monitoring of movement of energy between special molecules bound in the protein against a stop-clock.  They found evidence of long-lived QM states involved in moving the energy. The results suggest that energy of absorbed light resides in two places at once—a quantum superposition state. The Bible records Ananias as being seen by Paul in one place in the future while being in another place in the present (Acts 9:10-18).

The "double-slit" experiment directed light through two separate openings. The two resulting beams interfered with each other and created a striped pattern.  That proved wave properties of light and that atoms can behave like waves and particles. Researchers isolated a beryllium ion (an atom given an electrical charge by removing one of its outer electrons) in an electromagnetic trap of sorts and pinpointed its position with laser cooling. Using two laser beams, each turned to a different frequency, they split the atom into a superposition. By measuring the interference patterns of laser beams, they established the atom as having occupied two locations. The separation was around eighty nanometers or eighty times it normal diameter. On a human scale, the same person would have been split into twins a quarter mile apart. Using this concept in a quantum computer could superposition ions into two states and create trillions of combinations to store data.

Klaus Schulten is a faculty member in the Beckman Institute and directs the Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group. He does not believe superposition states would have potential positive implications for verifying QM consciousness theories. (Schulten's view was expressed in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in October, 2010.) Other scholars, such as neuroscience researcher Mario Beauregard at the University of Montreal, have yet to become familiar with these new concepts. (Beauregard's position was excerpted from an email exchange with Dallas F Bell Jr. in October, 2010.)

A successful teleportation experiment was conducted in 2006 at the Niels Bohr Institute by Eugene Simon Polzik.  Polzik teleported information stored in a laser beam into a cloud of atoms. He said it was the first time two different objects, light and matter, were teleported. One, the carrier of information, and the other, the storage medium, were teleported around one half of a meter. This is another example of possible usage in quantum computing.

The Bible addresses the concept of light in the Old Testament (Heb. 216) as illumination (Is. 60:1) and in the New Testament (John 5:35) as an illuminator (Gr. 3088) and also as to shine (Gr.5457 found in John 1:4). Moses is recorded as his face shining after he saw part of God (Ex. 33:18-23). He had to even put a veil over his face to subdue the light (Ex. 34:29-35).Jesus' face shined as the sun on the mountain of transfiguration (Matt. 17:1-9; Mark 9:2-3; Luke 9:28-29).It would appear that the atoms of Moses and Jesus' bodies were altered for a period of time.

We have seen that light not only can illuminate so information is gained but light itself can itself be information. Jesus incarnated was (light) information that bears witness of God the Father and the Godhead's attributes (John3:19-21; 12:45-46). Whoever believes on Jesus will not abide in darkness (John 8:12; Rev. 19-21).  God divided the light from the dark (Gen. 1:2-4) in creation and James Barr (1924-2006), a Hebrew scholar at Oxford University, said all scholars believe the creation text of Genesis means a literal six day (made of twenty-four hours per day as we know today) period of time.

Evil doers hate light (John 3:20-21) and are like minded (Rev. 17:12-13). The ruler of darkness is Satan (Eph. 6:12). The light of Jesus the Christ will triumph in parousia (Gen. 3:15; Matt. 4:1-11; Mark 3:27-28; Luke 10:18). Jesus' followers are commanded to arise and shine (Is. 60:1) because they are the light of the world (Matt. 5:14). God is the eternal light in heaven (Rev. 21:23-24; 22:5).Jesus is the way, the truth and the life and no man comes to the Father except by Him (John 14:6).

Jesus' being the way is the verb for the nouns of truth and life. That information facilitates acquiring other information, such as omniscient consciousness. Omniscient consciousness is an attribute of the infinite Godhead.The Godhead consists of the Father, Jesus (both God and man), and the Holy Spirit. Therefore, when Jesus spoke of parousia regarding His Second Coming, He was aware of using language to communicate to people in the future as well as to people present at the event recorded in the New Testament.

Understanding Jesus' theandric communication has been explored by the doctrines of futurists and preterists. They each specifically look at Jesus' words of "this generation shall not pass until all is done" (Matt. 24:34; Mark 13:30; Luke 21:32). The futurist explains that the event will happen and the preterist explains that the event must have already happened. Prophecy is controlled by being a static event in linear time (Ps. 40:7; 139:16; Mark 1:15; Gal. 4:4).Prophecy is a Divinely inspired foretelling of event(s) that need foretelling (Is. 42:9) and is always true (Jere. 28:1-17). Prophecy can be conditional (Jonah 3:1-10) or not (Eze. 12:25-28) and can be dated (Dan. 9:24-27).

An example of Jesus' theandric action is in the Garden of Gethsemane where His sweat became as blood (Matt. 26:37-42; Mark 14:32-39; Luke 22:41-45). His theandric actions seem to indicate that He was never separated from His existence in the Godhead even as He also indwelt a perfectly human physical body.  Then Jesus' brain could have rejected His Divine consciousness but did not.The body did show an unequal strength to accept the Father's will to die on the cross for the perfect atonement of all people's sins prior to the sacrificial event and after the sacrificial event. Finite humans with consciousness do not know the exactness of the future and can be brave, to a degree, from ignorance of the ramifications of their acts.Whereas, Jesus had perfect knowledge and still did them (John 18:4).

Another option of understanding the theandric actions of Jesus is to believe Jesus had/has two consciousnesses. This would mean that he had a created soul connected to His quantum body separated from His eternal Divine consciousness and would have been completely human apart from the Godhead and not be theandric God-man in a connected sense. But a quantum understanding of the same entity occupying two places at once may assist understanding how Jesus had two operations (God and man) of energy and will simultaneously.

Time perceptions for eternal omniscient God and finite man are different. A twenty-four hour day is as thousand years to God (Ps. 90:4; 2 Peter 3:8). Time is used for individual finite beings to order events and is a societal tool for efficient synchronizing of historical perspectives and references of its citizenry. In the Christianized western culture, time is monomorphic in that man has a Divinely given role in controlling nature and time is an exact reference (Gen. 1:28-31). That belief leads to behavior that potentially can create a First World political system. In non-Christian cultures, as is found in eastern religions, time is not necessarily essential and nature controls man. That belief leads to behavior that is inefficient and conducive to creating a Third World political system. This is why it is odd that archaeologists, or any person in the scientific field of discovery and analysis, such as Cornelius Holtorf at Linnaeus University, do not consider religious beliefs or intelligence levels as significant, especially for individual and societal time perceptions.  (Holtorf's view was expressed in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in January, 2011.)

Perception of time slowing occurs in out of the body experiences (OBE). OBE begin when a person looses contact with sensory input from the body while remaining conscious. The person retains the perception of having a body without the perception being derived from senses.

Athletes also describe a similar sensation to OBE of time slowing when they get in the zone.It seems the cerebellum, the brain region responsible for motor control, is consciously given dominance over other neuron functions. In this state, many incredible athletic feats are accomplished. This effect does not involve just the brain and spine, the central nervous system, but also the muscular structure, peripheral nervous system. Eliot Hazeltine recommended the spatial/time perception studies of Jessica K. Witt at the Purdue University Department of Psychological Sciences and Rouwen Caal-Brulandat the VU University Amsterdam Faculty of Human Movement Sciences.  (Hazeltine's, Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Iowa, recommendation was made in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in January, 2011.)

It should be noted that quantum entanglement is a property of certain states in a quantum system of two or more objects, in which the information describing the objects is inextricably linked. For example, measuring one of the objects alters the other, even when separated over distances. Bell's theorem resolved the problem in 1964.

Many people, such as John F. Clauser the Wolf Prize recipient for physics in 2010, doubt that Bell's theorem (e.g. violation of local hidden variables and counterfactual definiteness) can be extended toward the entanglement of ethics and behavioral options (i.e. to not lie, to not steal, to not murder, etc.) and the natural sanctions that reinforce each choice. (Clauser's view was explained in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in November, 2010.)

Max Lynn Stackhouse, Professor of Reformed Theology and Public Life Emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary, would recommend H. Richard Niebuhr's (1894-1962) book "The Responsible Self" to determine ethics' entanglements.  (Stackhouse made the recommendation in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in December, 2010.) John Martin Gillroy, Professor of International Law and Comparative Environmental Policy at Lehigh University, recommends his book "Justice and Nature" and Philip Allott's book "The Health of Nations" to study core ethical models regarding environmental issues. (Gillroy's recommendation was made in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in November, 2010.)

Military ethics from an Israeli perspective was written by Asa Kasher, Professor of Professional Ethics and Philosophy of Practice at Tel Aviv University, and Amos Yadlin (b. 1951), head of the Israeli intelligence effort called Aman. Their paper provides a current philosophic strategy for Israeli military ethics. (Kasher recommended his paper in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in November, 2010.)

Quantum information is physical information that is held in a quantum system. The qubit is the popular unit of a two level quantum system.  Quantum information cannot be read without the state becoming the measured value and the state may be in a superposition of basic values. Now space time can exceed the speed of light, as is witnessed by the universe expanding beyond that threshold so long as two locations do not communicate with each other or, in terms of light, see each other. But the propagation of information (i.e. a light pulse) cannot exceed the physical law of the speed of light.

In closing, the dimensionless quantity of consciousness is non-material since material cannot be self-aware and thus has no freewill or purpose. Consciousness does exist because it has observable causal effects on brain activity and consequences for choice. That consciousness of the eternal soul can have a relationship with Jesus and avoid intellectual isolation and loneliness commonly experienced, especially by the highest intellects. Thereby, man's creative potential can be reached. Sometimes isolation is God's plan for our best, such as for Paul who wrote many New Testament gospels while under house arrest and for John Bunyan (1628-1688) who wrote the "Pilgrim's Progress" while imprisoned.God's anodyne communication is inward through the soul and outward by the communication of others confirmed by scripture. It is up to us to listen and obey. Contrary to Protagoras of Abdera (c. 490-410 B.C.) as recorded in Plato's "Theaetetus", man is not the measure of all things.

(The author would like to acknowledge feedback from an email exchange with Judge John Bell regarding Muslim ethics and Christopher von der Malsburg, a Professor of Computer Science, Department for Physics and Astronomy Director, Laboratory of Computational and Biological Vision Director, Institut fr Neuroinformatik, Ruhr-Universitt Bochum, regarding the moral basis of the temporo-parietal junction.)



Applying the Bounded Variable of Ethic's Sigma Summation to the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Equation for Binding Consciousness with Societal Migration

Dallas F. Bell,Jr.

(Accepted for presentation at the 2-8 May, 2011, conference Toward a Science of Consciousness, featuring Oxford University's Professor of Physics Sir Roger Penrose, in Stockholm, Sweden.)

Abstract:  Data suggests that children, at birth, do not want to be lied to, stolen from, or murdered. Those hardwired desires can be viewed as bounded variables that make up the set of ethics common to human behaviors in a sigma summation, n= 10 (See the works of Baars for "treating consciousness as a variable" and see Cicero's 44 B.C. De Officiis, chapter IV of book 1, for the ancient Decalogue system of common ethics).


  = c + c + c×c (n times) = cn

Consciousness allows choice between neurological data from experience and applies the ethic to a situation, such as migration, for decision-making (See the works of Baars for nonmaterial aspects of consciousness and see pages 1317-1319 of the 2000 book "Principles of Neuroscience" by Kandel et al. and p. 675 of the 2004 third edition book "Neuroscience" by Purves et al.for material aspects of consciousness).An ethic can be said to be positive as it complies with the common"desires to not lie, to not steal, and to not murder, etc., or an ethic can be"said to be negative as it does not comply with the common desires to not be"lied to, not be stolen from, and to not be murdered, etc. (See the September 2010, paper by Dallas F. Bell Jr. accepted for presentation at the European Conference on Complex Systems, ECCS'10, titled "Proposal for Modeling the Operator of Schizophrenic Behavior Within the Mechanism of Societal Operators" for neurological simulation between functional and dysfunctional cognitive abilities and see the recent moral biasing research by the Saxelab Social Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology). The simplified Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation (GHK) used in neuroscience to find the membrane potential of a neuron's axon can be applied to find the societal "membrane potential" for migration (See p. 68 of the 2007 book titled "Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain" by Bear et al. for the Goldman equation).

Vm = (61.54) log10  x    PK(K+)o   +    PNa(Na+)o   +   PCl(Cl-)i at 37 degrees C        
                         PK (K+)i       PNa (Na+)i      PCl (Cl-)o

Societal migration potential (Sm) would replace the Vm. The common human average ethic compliance -5 of the 10 basic ethical behaviors replaces 65.54.  The percentage of the population that makes up compliance with 10 ethical standards replaces the PK where 10 replaces the K+ ion for the outside of the ethically and economically dominate society, o, being measured by the inside of that society,i.The percentage of the population (PNa) that complies with average ethical standards is 5 and replaces the Na+ ion and the percentage of population (-PCl) that is the lowest is -10 replacing the Cl- ion. Under normal conditions these numbers apply as would the ionic conditions of 37 degrees for the GHK equation. For example, the approximate relational data for the United States migration from Mexico could be stated as follows.

Sm = (-5) log10  x   10 x 10     +     30 x 5     +      -30 x -10
                     47 x 10          23 x 5             -60 x -10

= (-5) log10  x    550

= (-5) log10  x   .464

= (-5) -.33

= 1.65 Ms

The number of 1.65 migration of society (Ms) is more positive than -5 and so implies that the US(i) would tend to attract persons from Mexico of more average negative ethics than is the average US ethics but are more positive than the average ethics in Mexico (o).  That change raises the positive state inside Mexico closer to -5 and lowers the state inside the US closer to -5.  If the same numbers for the US are applied to its northern neighbor, Canada (o), the outcome would be -0.6 Ms. This is also a more positive relational number than -5. It suggests that under normal conditions the US would also tend to attract persons with average negative ethics from Canada compared to average US ethics, although in less volume than Mexico due to its higher positive number than Canada. That would bring the state inside Canada (higher) and the US (lower) closer to -5. Under normal conditions the ethically and economically dominate inside society would not migrate to a lower order outside society. It is understood that each society has appropriate leaky channels of migration patterns and any positive or negative decision-making changes of societal consciousness would be congruent.  This process can then be used for analysis and predictions in situ, especially in quantum mechanics (QM) biology (See Planck's foundational quantum theories and his view "that matter is derivative of consciousness" as recorded by The Observer in September, 1931).

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