Systematic Political Science


Adapting Plasma Models from Physics for Societal Chemistry to Aid Behavioral Influences Analysis (BIA), Adversary Intent Inferencing (AII), and International Negotiation and Conflict Resolution (INCR)

Dallas F. Bell, Jr. 

1. Introduction

The science of physics, among other things, deals with the concept of matter.  All physical things can be seen in the states or phases of matter.  As most people know, those states are solid, liquid, gas and plasma.  Some scholars may also include the Bose-Einstein Condensate.   

A solid has definite volume and shape because its atoms are compressed.  Crystalline solids have definite melting points and are ionic (e.g. salt), covalent (e.g. graphite), molecular (e.g. ice), and metallic (e.g. gold).  Amorphous solids do not have definite melting points (e.g. glass).  Liquids have definite volume but their shape changes and its atoms are less compact than solids.  The boiling point is reached when the substance becomes a vapor.  The third state of matter is gas.  Gases do not have definite volume or shape.  Each of their particles is separated and thus has low density.  Plasma is an ionized gas or cloud of protons, neutrons and electrons where all the electrons are loosed from their respective atoms.  Plasma occurs naturally and has the ability to act as a whole instead of separate atoms.  Plasma has very low density, for example the sun or lightning.  Recently, the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) has been considered to be a fifth state of matter.  This state is often thought to be much like the opposite of plasma where the gaseous superfluid state is formed by cooling to near absolute zero (0 degrees Kelvin or 273.15 degrees Celsius or -459.67 degrees Fahrenheit).  Rubidium atoms were cooled to 170 nanokelvins in 1995.  A large portion of the atoms collapsed into the lowest known quantum state and became a superfluid.   

Satyendra N. Bose and Albert Einstein predicted the BEC phenomenon based on statistical mechanics of (mass-less) photons to (massive) atoms.  This describes the statistical distribution of identical particles with integer spin or bosons.  Cooling bosonic atoms causes them to condense.  Degenerate gases have been created from cooling fermions because the atoms do not congregate in a simple state due to the Pauli Exclusion Principle.  BEC requires fermions to pair and form compound particles (molecules or Cooper pairs) that are bosons.  The first molecular BEC was created in 2003.  The first fermionic condensate of Cooper pairs was created shortly thereafter.      

In section 3 of the systematic political science paper on proof theory by Dallas F. Bell Jr., it was pointed out that people with the same theologies can bosonically occupy the same institution(s) or nation-state.  Generally, people with different theologies fermionically occupy separate institutions or nation-state systems.  Human behavior is composed of quantum type mechanisms and Natural Laws of Freewill (NLF) that approximates the options for behavior.  Then models used in physics for matter, such as plasma, could have duel purpose uses for individual and societal behavior.   

2. Plasma Models

As mentioned in section 1, plasma is an ionized gas whose density is high enough that the long range Coulomb force (named for Charles A. de Coulomb) is a significant factor in determining the statistical properties of the particles and whose density is low enough that the Coulomb force of a nearby particle is much less than the cumulative long range Coulomb force exerted by the many distant particles.  This can be statistically satisfied if there are many particles in a Debye sphere (named for Petrus J. W. Debye), which is a sphere of radius one Debye length.  A Debye length is a typical length over which a charged particle's bare electric field has substantial influence.  

If sufficient heat (energy transferred from one body or system to another--thermodynamics) is added to a solid it becomes a liquid, is added to a liquid it becomes a gas, is added to a gas the atoms ionize and become a plasma.  Most matter over 100000 degrees K is in an ionized state.  Ultra cold plasma can be created by manipulating the atoms with lasers where the kinetic energy of the electrons is controlled. 

Plasma particles behave collectively and have a wide range of waves and oscillations.  An oscillation occurs if a group of electrons is slightly displaced from their equilibrium.  The displaced electrons detect an electrostatic force to return them to their equilibrium but now have a kinetic energy equal to their initial displacement.  The electrons overrun and convert their kinetic energy to potential energy producing an oscillation.  The frequency of the oscillation is the plasma frequency. 

Plasmas have many modes of waves due to their charged particles.  The frequency and the wave vector are functionally related to each other by a dispersion relationship (in linear theories).  Plasma is a nonlinear medium and unless waves are of small amplitude they have nonlinear effects, such as solitons and double layers. 

Langmur waves are considered to be the simplest.  Ion sound or acoustic waves occur in a field free plasma.  Whistlers (named for the whistling sound) are an example of electromagnetic waves that contain a magnetic field but electromagnetic waves do not possess a mean magnetic field.  An Alfvén wave is a magnetohydrodynamic wave below where a dispersionless electromagnetic wave can propagate.  Collisionless damping or Landau damping an initial disturbance is damped as it moves away from the point of origin. 

To describe the complete state of a plasma would require transcribing all locations and velocities of the particles as well as the electromagnetic field.  It is more practical to model the main types of plasma descriptions which are simple particle, kinetic, fluid, hybrid and gyrokinetic.  Many researchers only model the fluid and the kinetic descriptions. 

The fluid model describes the macroscopic qualities of velocity, density and mean energy of velocity moments.  A two-fluid picture describes electron and ions separately.  This model is used when collisions are high.  The problem is that this can't capture velocity space structures (e.g. beams or double layers) nor resolve wave particle effects. 

The kinetic model is often necessary for collisionless plasma to describe the particle velocity function at each point in the plasma.  This model is more computationally demanding than fluid models from the representing functions on a grid in velocity and position or by following the trajectories of a large number of individual particles. 

3. Societal Chemistry

Chemistry is the study of how atoms interact.  Of course, the atom is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.  Protons have a positive charge and neutrons have no charge.  Each resides in the nucleus and is heavier than electrons.  The negatively charged electrons surround the nucleus.  The magnitude of the electron is equal to the charge of the proton.  Chemical bonding occurs when two atoms exchange or combine their outer electrons.  When the bond occurs, the atoms become a compound. 

Valence (Latin meaning strong) is the disposition of one atom toward another atom concerning bonding.  Some atoms share electrons in covalent bonds.  In ionic bonding, electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another.  The positive ion, made smaller in the exchange, is attracted to the negative ion made larger.  Two like atoms form a nonpolar covalent bond.  A polar covalent bond is formed from two atoms sharing their electrons unequally. 

The tendency of two or more atoms reacting is so that each can reach a state where their valence shell is filled.  During a chemical reaction atoms bond or break bonds and either release or consume energy.  A chemical equation records this process by indicating, on the left side of the equation, how many and type of atoms became what molecule(s) on the right side.  The law regarding conservation of matter states that matter is neither lost nor gained in chemical reactions.  Matter simply changes form.  In equations, whatever was on the left side must be accounted for on the right side. 

The Periodic Table of Elements, Factors and Variables of Systematic Political Science presents the components of societal chemistry not unlike chemistry's periodic table.  Much like the study of atoms indicates, people have similar make-ups and constraints.  Individuals are born with genetic ability, such as talents and IQ, that could be considered neutrons since they are neutral in whether they are used for good or evil.  Each person is also born with neurological software or templates containing all NLF that could be considered protons.     

We know NLF are innate because in relationships with other people the timeline of societal law indicates that historically no one wants to be murdered, stolen from, lied to etc.  Science teaches that all effects had a cause and there must have been a cause of all effects--God.  That omniscient Being that is only worthy of praise would have had to reveal Himself due to His character of mercy and grace--Bible.  The Bible explains that man was created by God in His image.[Gen.1:26-27, 5:3, 9:6; Col. 3:10; 2 Cor. 4:4]  God inhabits praise for Him.[Ps. 22:3]      

The higher the IQ, the greater the density of the nucleus.  Each individual chooses to comply with or not comply with NLF which becomes the number of electrons or valence.  That decision effects the attraction and resistance of bonds in relationships.  Human bonds form compatible groups or institutions of family, church, business and government that attract or resist incompatible institutions. 

Obviously, each person's experience affects the number of protons and therefore the positive charge.  If NLF is reinforced the effect or positive charge is greater and if not reinforced the effect or positive charge is less.  Either a (finite) person is controlled by the finite supernatural force (evil) of noncompliance with NLF or is controlled by the infinite supernatural force (good) of compliance with NLF.[Matt. 4:24, 8:28-34, 9:32-33, 12:22-23, 15:22-28, 17:14-21; Mark 1:23-26, 1:32, 5:1-20, 16:9] 

The good force is from salvation from God.[John 1:12, 3:16]  When this occurs God's Holy Spirit reinforces the protons and adds spiritual gifts or talents to the neutrons.[Rom. 12:6-8; 1 Cor. 12:4-30]  The electron shield is supernaturally filled.[Eph. 1:13; James 1:7]  This state is the highest potential for equilibrium of NLF and behavior.  Less than this state results in degrees of cognitive dissonance from the inequality of internal protons of NLF and electrons or behavioral ability to live efficiently in compliance with each NLF.  Man must decrease so God can increase.[John 3:30]  The saved must not grow weary in adversity or faint in well doing.[Prov. 24:10; Gal. 6:9] 

4. Behavioral Influences Analysis (BIA), Adversary Intent Inferencing (AII),  and International Negotiation and Conflict Resolution (INCR)    

Behavioral Influences Analysis (BIA) provides the framework for strategists to facilitate understanding and exploitation of the perceptual and context areas of human analysis.  To achieve sufficient understanding of the target or target group, analysts must collect all pertinent data and then apply it to the structures or models of possible behavior. 

Adversary Intent Inferencing (AII) modeling uses the BIA models as the core element for predictive analyses and simulations to establish potential goals and behavioral options of potential adversaries.  The simulation could be computerized or red teamed or a combination of those two means of validation and verification. 

BIA and AII models are an invaluable resource for International Negotiation and Conflict Resolution (INCR).  INCR has a goal of reducing options to a binary decision tree for analysis and strategy development.  Supercomputer and red team simulation can then be realistically incorporated.  Plasma models may be of specific use when analyzing human and institution behavior that is in the transition arc level

5. Conclusion

From the brief presentation in this paper, it should be axiomatic that plasma models from physics can be used to specifically illustrate the components and effects of societal chemistry.  That product should be helpful to analysts involved in BIA, AII and INCR. 

In the late 20th century, it was noted that Americans had discovered the atom's subatomic particles and principles but had, ironically, forgotten the Sermon on the Mount--NLF exegesis by Emmanuel.[Matt. 5-7][Is. 7:14; Matt. 1:23]  People without salvation should not be expected to do otherwise.  People with salvation should be expected to be heated, as in a plasma model, and have their NLF beliefs (protons) and behavior (electrons) forcible destabilized.  The other option is the super repression of BEC where NLF are so oppressed that people flee or perish. 

Frederic Douglass (1818-1895; née Frederic Augustus Washington Bailey) was born a slave in the United States.  He received salvation and was transformed into a solid but was BEC until he escaped.  Though freed, Douglass behaved like a plasma in the hostile environment but was able to forgive and even love his former slave holders with the supernatural strength of the Holy Spirit.[2 Cor. 3:17-18; 2 John 1:6]  His self-sacrifice was an exchange of something of value for something perceived to be of greater value.  That energy exchange is much less likely among the unsaved. 

The natural states of humans are a solid (having a goal of compliance with all 10 NLF and their subsets), a liquid (having a goal of compliance with 9-5 NLF), a gas (having a goal of compliance with 4-0 NLF), and a plasma or BEC turmoil.[1 John 2:3-5, 5:18]  These states can and should be modeled for the benefit of complying with more NLF and reaching the highest potential for mankind.[Prov. 28:9]

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