Systematic Political Science


Psychiatric Epigenetics and Transcultural Psychiatry Within Sigma Summation of the Monads of Good and Evil (Speech)

Dallas F. Bell, Jr.

Epigenetics (Gr. epi; over, above) is a term that refers to gene expression (phenotype) caused by mechanisms other than changes in the DNA sequence, including both material and non-material (quantum causes, soul influence etc.). The cell membrane has been described as an organic homologue in allowing the environment, not the interior gene/DNA, to control the behavior and physiology of the cell within on or off modes for the genes. Robin Holliday (b. 1932), the geneticist that developed the Holliday Junction concerning gene-conversion events, emphasizes that the DNA of genes plays a vital role in changing gene expression. He would also disagree with researchers that believe that there are non-material abilities in brain cells. (The preceding comments by Robin Holliday were excerpted from an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in September, 2009.)

Studies of monozygotic (MZ) twins show that although each twin has the same genotype many phenotype differences are observed. As the twins get older, there are remarkable differences in their overall content and genomic distribution of 5-methylcytosine DNA and histone acetylation. The paper titled Epigenetic Differences Arise During the Lifetime of Monozygotic Twins explains that the causes of MZ twin discordance for common diseases and traits are not known.

The discordance among MZ twins is particularly noticeable for psychiatric diseases (e.g. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder etc.). Psychiatric epigenetics examines such a lack of concordance among MZ twins to explain other epigenetic dysfunction, such as depression and autism. It seems the goal of epigenetic mapping would be to find the baseline or gene/DNA potential with which the individual and their environment turns their gene modes on and off. Howard Cedar (b. 1943), the 2008 winner of Israel's Wolf Prize in medicine, wisely cautions that this is a complicated process. (The above input by Howard Cedar was expressed in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. during September, 2009.)

The paper titled Genetics and Epigenetics in Major Psychiatric Disorders states that a specific gene for any major psychiatric disorder has not been found. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests the understanding of genetic etiology of psychiatric illnesses will be more successful with approaches that integrate both genetic and epigenetic factors. Population based investigations are needed to understand varying epigenomic states for the aging and various environment exposures.

Transcultural psychiatry is concerned with the cultural and ethnic context of mental disorders. The differences in metacognitive processing across cultures would need to be widely studied. Metacognition (knowing about knowing) itself was written about in Aristotle's De Anima .

Math models are increasingly being used for cognitive phenomena. Juan Carlos Valle-Lisboa et al developed the Elman topology with sigma-pi units to model verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. Valle-Lisboa's point was to show complex operations but would need more information to be adapted for the subtle effects of Giles de la Tourette syndrome. (Juan Carlos Valle-Lisboa's explanation was made in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in October, 2009.)

Linear extrapolation could extend a tangent line at the end of known data if the data can be assumed to be continuous, periodic, etc., such as for behavior within the parameters of NLF . A sigma summation could be used to represent the 10 NLF. Where 'n' is the terminal value for the index 'i' where the summation begins. Summing the constant 'c' from i = 1 to n. So i = 1, n = 10 NLF, c = 1, 1(10) = 10. The summation is represented as follows.

Mathematical notation: the sum for i = 1 to n of c. = c + c + cc (n times) = cn

This specific model could be to analyze what is good and what is evil behavior. Axiology (Gr. axia; value, worth) is the study of value. Every language has a word to express good and a word to express evil. Those words are rooted in compliance with or non-compliance with NLF. Some people value compliance with NLF as good and consider non-compliance with NLF as evil, others have the opposite values.

The Nazi régime in Hitler's Germany, at the onset of World War II, valued non-compliance with NLF, such as theft, murder etc. The IBM corporation assisted Nazi efforts by providing technology and consulting to collate data rapidly for the tracking of people to be enslaved and murdered. The noted Darwinian evolutionist Richard Dawkins, in a letter to Scotland's Sunday Herald, stated that while one would not want to be seen as agreeing with Hitler, eugenics can be practical and desirable.

Ponerology (Gr. poneros; evil) is a branch of theology that studies evil. The Bible speaks of good and evil. Adam and Eve were told not to eat of the tree of good and evil (Gen. 2:16-17). After they disobeyed God, He said that man has become as one of Us to know good and evil (Gen. 3:22). No one is good but God and so every one is to keep His commandments, NLF, (Matt. 19:17). A good tree cannot bring forth evil (Matt 7:17). Evil is to be overcome with good (Rom. 12:21). People that do good are of God; but people that do evil have not seen God (3 John 11).

Paul challenged people to not allow what they consider to be good to be spoken of as evil (Rom. 14:16). Evil is from Satan (Is 14:12-14), other spirits (Matt. 12:45), and man (Matt. 15:18-19). Evil could also be attributed to general suffering, floods and earthquakes etc. (Is. 45:7; Gen. 3:17-19; Rev. 9:18-21; Luke 13:1-3; Prov. 22:3; Matt 24:6-8, 14; 2 Cor. 12:7-10; Job 2:7-10; Jam. 5:11; Rom. 8:18-39; Heb. 3:17-19; Rev 7:14-17). Choosing to eat of the tree of life (Gen. 3:1-19) and Cain choosing to murder Abel (Gen. 4:6-10) show that mankind has choice (John 7:17) and can reason (Is 1:18-20; 58:13-14). People can then turn from evil (Jere. 26:3; 36:3, 7). The societal ramifications are ominous if there is no truth or mercy or knowledge of God in the society and swearing, lying, killing, stealing and adultery are common place, then the land shall mourn (Hosea 4:1-3). The Bible records Gods words of warning 'Woe to them that call evil good and good evil; that put darkness for light and light for darkness: that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter.' (Is.5:20)

Speech is categorized as either a good or evil monad . A form of speech is swearing. Swear words are also called profanity. The verb 'blaspheme' and the adjective 'blasphemous' are considered profanity and are violations of NLF. As such, this would be considered evil speech. Earthy speech, references not usually appropriate except for crude descriptions, when made out of their contextual setting can be considered rude and obscene. Swearing implies the freewill to choose to vocalize in a manner with knowledge of meaning.

Richard Stephens, a psychologist at Keele University, found that swearing can lessen pain. Stephens did not use the variable of IQ, but thinks that it may act as a proxy for background swearing frequency. He suspects that people that swear more often may show a smaller pain lessening effect than people that swear less often. His research compared swearing with saying a neutral word to answer the question as to whether swearing has any effect on pain tolerance and pain perception. He is planning a follow-up study to compare swearing with saying 'ouch' to determine the best vocal response to pain stimuli. (Richard Stephens.s comments were excerpted from an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in October, 2009.)

Severe aphasia, adult left hemispherectomy, and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome are neurological disorders that show involuntary use of swear words. Neurolinguistic and neurobehavioral perspectives on swearing shows shared linguistic features across language behaviors, as well as important differences. Timothy Jay, a psychology professor at the Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts, says no one has (brain) imaged all strata in all cultures, but we humans have similar brains. Coprolalia (approximately 15% of Tourette syndrome cases where swearing is constant) seems to be present in different cultures, tapping the most socially inappropriate symbols in each culture. What is inappropriate (religion, family denigration, sexuality) is culturally specific. Bilinguals experience swear words more acutely in L1 than in L2. (Timothy Jay's views were expressed in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. during October, 2009.)

Different words can be profanity to different people and over time these words can change. Profanity may make reference to religion, and body parts and functions (including sex). Profanity in the Russian culture commonly addresses the latter while profanity in the French culture commonly addresses the former. Evil communications corrupts good manners (1 Cor. 15:33) and includes blasphemy (Dan. 7:25; Ps. 59:12) but also includes discouragement (Job 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 20 22, 25; Deut. 1:28), slander (Prov. 10:18), lying (Ps. 58:3), deception (Rom. 16:18), and enticement (Prov. 7:21). Good speech includes God's righteousness (Ps. 35:28), wisdom (1 Cor. 2:6-7; Prov. 10:21), God's Word (Ps. 119:172), truth (Eph. 4:25), Christ (2 Cor. 4:3-4), doctrine (Titus 2:1, 8), knowledge (2 Cor 11:6), encouragement and edification (Deut. 1:38; 2 Chr. 31:4; 1 Cor. 14:3).

True good is eternal benevolence that requires infinite knowledge to understand freewill, mercy, justice, grace etc. within all realms of existence. In this, God works all things together for good for those that love Him and are called according to His name (Rom. 8:28). Pascal (1623-1662) said in Pensees that He only is our true good.

A child may not perceive medicine as good though the medicine will make the child healthier and is truly good. Then perceived good is benevolence from the view of a finite mind. Therefore, God's holiness is beyond the superficial human philosophical dualism of good and evil. Because God is love (John 3:16). That Divine love surpasses NLF (Matt. 12:1-8, 10-16).

Even Nietzsche in Beyond Good and Evil (1886) says that what is done out of love always takes place beyond good and evil. Ravi Zacharias' book, Beyond Opinion: Living the Faith We Defend, deduces the notion that eternal and infinite good is not the opposite of finite evil. God's love is the highest expression of holiness that incorporates all infinite attributes of wisdom, justice etc. Since love is God's eternal character, His love is not dependant on His creation, an object of love, but implies His love between the infinite Divine Trinity. Only the Bible reveals such a Being.

If evil were eternal, it would have been malevolence that requires infinite knowledge to understand freewill, mercy, justice, grace etc. within all realms of existence. Evil is self-destructive and negates the possibility of eternal existence or creation which is constructive and not destructive. A child can be told that evil is good and may not know the extent to which it was evil until the negative and destructive consequences of the evil act(s) is realized. Perceived evil is malevolence from the view of a finite mind.

Finite minds are dependant on God's revelation to adequately understand good and evil for survival. Solomon concluded that fear of the Lord was the beginning of wisdom (Prov. 1:7). The fear of the Lord is to hate evil (Prov. 8:13). Moses appointed Israeli judges that feared God (Ex. 18:21). Evil men do not understand judgment but they that seek the Lord understand all things (Prov. 28:5).

Conversely, Clarence Darrow said, in an Ohio symposium (1929), that the fear of God is not the beginning of wisdom. He said the fear of God is the death of wisdom. Skepticism and doubt lead to study and investigation, and investigation is the beginning of wisdom. Beowulf describes arguments like this as 'God's foe sounding his grisly song, cry of the conquered.' Darrow defended murdering pedophiles justified from his Darwinian evolutionists' beliefs which he oddly accepted without any skepticism and doubt. Mao Zedong's, another Darwinian evolutionist, pedophilia and murdering reign was recorded by his personal physician, Li Zhisui, in the book The Private Life of Chairman Mao. He was the Caligula of China.

God's wisdom is pure, peaceful, gentle, merciful, and without partiality or hypocrisy (Jam. 3:17). Do they not err that devise evil? Mercy and truth shall be to them that devise good (Prov. 14:22). God dwells in us if we love one another. He that doesn't love doesn't know God (1 John 4:7-21). The goodness of God is abundant (Ex. 34:6), is great (Ps. 31:19), is enduring (Ps. 52:1), is satisfying (Ps. 65:4), is merciful (Ps. 145:9), and is a blessing (Ps. 31:19; Matt. 5:45; Acts 14:17).

It would be a good idea to ask God, who knows everything, for wisdom (Jam. 1:5-8). Paul said that he wants people to be wise about what is good, and innocent about what is evil. The God of peace will soon crush Satan under our feet (Rom. 16:19-20). Legendary writers, such as Virgil (70 B.C.-19 B.C.) in Aeneid and Dante in the Paradiso part of the Divine Comedy, describe eternal destinies of the souls of people that do good and the souls of people that do evil.

Individuals that do good now seek to comply with NLF and have potential to produce civilized First World systems. Whereas, people that do evil now do not seek to comply with NLF and have the potential to only produce uncivilized Third World systems. An evil man seeks only rebellion (Prov. 17:11). In A Letter to a Member Of the National Assembly (1791), Edmund Burke (c. 1729-1797) said, 'There is no safety for honest men, but by believing all possible evil of evil men, and acting with promptitude, decision, and steadiness on that belief.' Solomon said a prudent man foresees evil and hides; but the simple pass on and are punished (Prov. 22:3).

Robert Jastrow (1925-2008), founder of NASA's Goddard institute, was a self-proclaimed agnostic. He said, 'For the scientist who has lived by faith in the power of reason, the story ends like a bad dream. He has scaled the mountains of ignorance; he is about to conquer the highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of theologians who have been sitting there for centuries.' (1978, God and the Astronomers)

In conclusion, it seems apparent that the more mankind knows the more God is revealed (in the monads of systematic theology ) to be either accepted or rejected. Emily Dickinson wrote that 'Forever is composed of nows.' Salvation is nearer now than when we first believed. The night is nearly over, the day is almost here. Put aside deeds of darkness. Put on the armor of light. Cloth yourselves with Jesus and do not think about how to gratify the desires of the sinful nature (Rom. 13:11-14). These are words that if heeded will prove to have been good for everyone for evermore.

----------ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2009 DALLAS F. BELL, JR.----------