Systematic Political Science


How International Trade Theory and Syzygial Globalization Theory Incorporate Cult Personality Theory and Lagrange Multipliers

Dallas F. Bell, Jr.

1. International Trade Theory

International trade is the exchange of goods, to include capital, and services between nations. International trade has been prevalent throughout history. With the advancement of technology, international trade systems represent an increased share of most nations' gross national product (GNP). Given this level of national importance, several models have been proposed to predict and analyze trade patterns and effects.

David Ricardo's (1772-1823) model focused on comparative advantage. With perfect competition free of distorted markets, nations tend to export goods in which they have a comparative advantage. The Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) model considered the factors of production, such as land, labor and capital, in determining a nation's comparative advantage. It suggests that nations will export goods from their abundant resources and will import goods that are scarce. The gravity model predicts bilateral trade flow based on gross domestic product (GDP) and the geographic distance of separation.

It seems that each of the models presented above have inherent problems. For example, the Wassily Leontief (c.1905-1999) paradox occurs when the most capital endowed country in the world, the U.S., actually exports more to labor intensive countries. The opposite is predicted to occur in comparative advantage. Staffan Linder predicted that trade patterns need to consider preferences for goods in countries. Jagdish Bhagwati (b. 1934 and is professor of economics and law at Columbia University) has pointed out that the problems of overly simplified trade theories.

Bhagwati expanded on the supply-side of comparative advantage. He said that a country with a lower cost of a product relative to another country with free trade will export that product to the other country. He showed that this assumption is based on demand by a country as a whole due to prices which is the same for demand driven consumer behavior exhibited by individuals.

Prices are a reflection of true supply and demand and are the sole determining factor of resource allocation in free trade. Free trade is a trade policy that prevents government interference in trade actions and transactions. People that advocate free trade, Adam Smith (c.1723-1790), John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946), etc. believe that economic systems prosper the most as a result of decreased government meddling. However, some degree of government protectionism is the norm for most countries. The U.N.'s World Bank argues for tariff rates of 20% or more by developing countries.

New Trade Theory (NTT) challenges the assumption of economists that advocate for protectionism regarding infant industries within generally free trade policies. NTT challenges the notion of diminishing returns to scale and suggests that such a potential buildup of an industrial base would then allow for an unhealthy world domination of those sectors.

It seems that either there is pure free trade and prosperity or there is no free trade and the impoverishing government force of the gun prefers one circumstance over another. The biblical principle for free trade begins with NLF (i.e. to not steal, to not covet etc.) that indicate people own and can give freely—free markets and free trade. If anyone will not work then they should not eat (II Thes. 3:10). It is not productive to debate unjust people that reject NLF because they are covetous and thieves at best.

Some of the following common examples of rejecting biblical principles for individual and societal free trade are born of either ignorance or deceit (Matt. 24:4). In the Old Testament, the Israelis were instructed by God to take all the precious metals and gems from their Egyptian masters in the exodus of Egypt (Ex. 11:2). This passage is cited as an example of a universal pattern to achieve social justice. In other words, if someone decides that they do not like their wages they are free to steal from their employers to even the playing field. The nation of Israel also took the valuable properties of the city-states the conquered militarily (Josh. 6:24). Their acts were sanctioned by God specifically to establish the nation's wealth. If not, why was the wealth of King Solomon (I Kings 10, II Chr. 9), Job (the book of Job), and Joseph of Arimathaea (Matt. 27:57-60) decreed by God during their eras known for having numerous poor people?

Another example is from the New Testament account of two early church members that died as a result of not giving all their proceeds of land sells to the church (Acts 5:1-10). The fact is ignored that they owned their land to begin with and sold it freely but did not honor their vow to God by giving all their proceeds which required their death. Jesus' telling the rich man to sell all his possessions (Mark 10:17-25) was to personally show the rich man that he was incorrectly trusting in his great possessions and not in God.

The Israelis were told by God to not make separate laws for their righteous relatives and for righteous non-relatives when establishing their new state (Ex. 12:49). This was, of course, to facilitate future immigration by applying equal justice for what was to transform a tribe of city-states into a nation-state.

People that wrongly cite the Bible's NLF to accommodate their oppressive values produce inefficient 3W systems whereas people that are compliant with NLF can produce efficient 1W systems. Increasingly, the regulation of global international trade is accomplished through the U.N.'s World Trade Organization. This makes an analysis of globalization highly relevant.

2. Syzygial Globalization Theory (SGT)

Internationalization is a term that is used to narrowly describe the increasing exchange in international markets. Globalization is a term that has come to more accurately describe this dynamic phenomenon. World Culture Theory refers to globalization as the compression and intensification of world consciousness. World Polity Theory says globalization is the growth of world culture. In World System Theory, globalization is the process of spreading a capitalist world-system across the globe. Globalization could then be simply defined as the process of unifying all world societies into one.

Globalization is a process of transformation regional phenomena into global ones. The key areas of theologically analyzing global transformation are theory, political and legal, military, economic, cultural, and environmental. The economic category can be characterized by the measurement of export and import of goods and services, migration and labor/people, investment of capital, and the ebb and flow of technology across national borders.

Globalization is not a new phenomenon; nor is it not to be considered reversible. The first era of globalization is reported to have occurred from the 1870s to the First World War. Suzanne Berger, political professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, states that this period had high international trade, capital mobility, and large migration across national borders not to be seen again until the mid-1980s. That era ended with the gold standard crisis and the Great Depression in the late 1920s and early 1930s.

Proto-globalization occurred in the 16th century where substantial patterns of cultural and material exchanges took place between Africa and Eurasia. Sea routes led to discovery and expansion across the globe. Commercial enterprises in that Age of Discovery dealt with procuring goods and fixing the prices of those goods.

The latest effort for globalization began in earnest after World War II by politicians for the stated purpose of breaking down borders to prevent future wars. In this period, world exports have grown from 8.5% of the gross world product reported in 1970 to 16.1% in 2001.

The history of globalization can be understood by using the Intelligent Design (ID) modes of randomness, necessity, and design. Globalization from randomness would mean that it has occurred without purpose or bounded by NLF. It is not possible to have all the world entities working in unison without purpose according to NLF. Globalization from an eventual necessity of world entities to function as one is the explanation of leaders such as Anthony "Tony" Blair (b.1953), the former prime minister of Great Britain. He and his staff believe that as technology increases it creates increasing intimate connections and interdependencies between different parts of the world and globalization is a reality that we all must face. (This opinion was expressed in an email exchange between PM Tony Blair's Faith Foundation and Dallas F. Bell Jr. during June, 2009.)

PM Blair's position is echoed by Stanley Hoffmann (b.1928). Hoffmann believes that globalization is the inevitable consequence of all revolutions in communications and transport, and the desire of leaders everywhere for accelerated development and national enrichment. He notes that some states will do better than others, and Israeli globalization should be specifically in its interest due to its partly self-inflicted state of siege. (Professor Hoffmann's comments were made in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in June, 2009. He is the Buttenwieser Professor and founder of the Center for European Studies at Harvard University. Hoffmann is also a leading member of the Council on Foreign Relations, an organization devoted to global governance.)

The last ID mode to discuss regarding the causation of globalization is design. Human design is used to create the institutions of family, church, business, and government. Globalization's global governance can not seriously be denied as created by world leaders. Therefore, the incorrect views of randomness held by some people and necessity held by other people have obscured the true causation of globalization which is the force from the efforts of a few likeminded world leaders. Syzygy describes the alignment of three or more objects in the same system along a plane. In this case, the first two objects (randomness and necessity) eclipse the true causing force for globalization (design).

Syzygial Globalization Theory (SGT) is the view of causation for globalization largely attributed to human design. In Israel, the secular city of Tel Aviv supports globalization efforts but the Jewish Orthodox city of Jerusalem opposes globalization. Protestant Christians in the U.S. oppose globalization but other U.S. citizens support it as does the atheist government of China as written of by Yong Deng, professor of political science at the U.S. Naval Academy.

Jagdish Bhagwati stated in 2008 that free trade in globalization will result in faster gender equity in wages as well as will have other benefits. Thereby, globalization will be given a human face as believed to be needed by Tony Blair and others to overcome substantial opposition. Saskia Sassen, professor of sociology at Columbia University, intimates that supportive or non-supportive behavioral potential (IQ, gender, age etc.) for globalization could be examined psychiatrically. (Professor Sassen's opinion was reflected in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in June, 2009.) This could mean, in pediatrics for example, that people under the age of 25 that have an under developed executive function or frontal lobe could be easily influenced to accept globalization's ideologically expressed goals, such as environmentalism etc. Frank Lechner, professor of sociology at Emory University, recommends the studies of Donatella della Porta (b.1956) concerning protestors in Europe. (Professor Lechner's recommendation was made in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. during June, 2009.)

Surprisingly, for various reasons intellectuals have not given much thought to SGT. Maya Bar-Hillel, professor of psychology and head of the Center for the Study of Rationality at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, confirms this lack of academic emphasis. (Professor Bar-Hillel expressed this view in an email exchange with Dallas F. Bell Jr. in June, 2009. She is known for her collaborations with Amos Tversky (1937-1996) and for her father, Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (1915-1975) the famous philosopher, mathematician and linguist at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.) It is biblically taught for people to seek wisdom and that the lips of wise people disperse knowledge (Prov. 15:7).

Although the supporters of globalization beliefs are important to study, the designing world leaders of globalization are much more valuable to determine the true purposes and direction of globalization. As does the current president of the U.S., world leaders that support globalization seem to lack compliance with the NLF of not coveting (Lb10), not stealing (Lb8), not deceiving (Lb9), having no other God (La1), not using God's name vainly (La3), and not murdering (Lb6). Those six violations of NLF from the Divine constitution for humanity (the Bible) restrict world governance efficiency to a 3W system. Their use of the tactic of professing to seek peace is overshadowed by their violent beliefs. Their individual goals to achieve their needs are win-lose, for now. The goals of a 1W system leader would be lose-win, for now, as Jesus' death on the cross for sinful mankind—Laus Deo (L. praise be to God).

3. Cult Personality Theory (CPT)

Personality Theory is the study of how the theological choice of a person dictates their compliance or non-compliance with NLF as they pursue their common hierarchy of individual needs. Cult Personality Theory (CPT) is the study of how and why a societal leader uses the means at their disposal (e.g. mass media etc.) to create the psychological image deemed worthy of worship by their followers.

In the recent past, Stalin of the former U.S.S.R., Hitler of Germany, Mussolini of Italy, Mao of China, and Ho Chi Minh of Southeast Asia have been routinely studied for their intentionally fostering a divine authority for their behavior. Today, Fidel Castro of Cuba and Kim ll-sung and his son, Kim Jong il of North Korea can be observed exhibiting the same behavior. Castro has his picture on billboards with self-serving slogans all over the tiny island. North Korean school children are taught to thank Kim ll-sung for all blessings since he was the one that created the world.

Each of those cult leaders fostered eschatological beliefs, especially of a doomsday crisis to occur in their lifetime, to make themselves de facto gods to their followers as their followers are directed as to how they are allowed to pursue their individual needs. The followers' view of NLF emanates from their T3 leader/god. Thus, the cult leaders' enforcers of evil (violations of NLF), the military and police etc., can be expected to also violate the same NLF as their leader, as seen by Hitler's Nazi supporters. These followers should not be expected to oppose genocide, as seen in the Jewish Holocaust, or homicide/infanticide, as seen in abortion clinics.

The present U.S. president has used the mass media to interject himself into all facets of American society with the explanation that he will provide for all needs in all doomsday crises. Polls indicate that over 80% of U.S. voters oppose policies that he proposes, yet as high as 65% of U.S. voters say they viewed him as favorable. (Note: His favorable rating has since dropped to 55% which could mean voters are connecting his policies to his cult personality and are beginning to reject his fostered divine image.)

In April, 2009, the Group of Twenty summit was held in London. On #19 of their communiqué , those world leaders appropriated funds to create a one-world currency. That step was to augment the U.N.'s International Monetary Fund's (IMF) Articles of Agreement . This global movement for economic consolidation toward a cashless system was foretold thousands of years ago. That same biblical source indicated that the world leader would be from the old Roman Empire and would seek peace with Israel, etc.

It is not unexpected that Tony Blair has, to some scholars, come to represent a proto-type of the predicted world leader or anti-Christ . As Prime Minister, Blair introduced policies to force British citizens to accept his government computer chip identification card or mark in 2004, he converted to the Roman religion in 2007, he heads the envoy for peace in Israel (reportedly has a Hebrew ancestor), and he is expected to be selected as the permanent leader of the E.U. or old Roman Empire.

As a visiting professor on globalization at Yale University in 2008, Blair has been quoted as having said that multicultural and multi-religious societies are a result of pushing people together, and now spiritual capital and human capital need to be linked. Blair also said, unless we find a way to reconcile faith and globalization, the world will be a more dangerous place. The cult of personality is present in his interjecting himself as the solver of global crises by his values.

Christians are taught in Paul's book of Romans to not be conformed to this world (Rom. 12:2), to live as peacefully with others as is possible (Rom. 12:18), to render dues and tribute to whom it is due (Rom. 13:7), and to love their neighbor as their selves (Rom. 13:9). Whatever the milieu, Paul's teachings are appropriate behavior to live efficiently in compliance with NLF.

4. Lagrange Multipliers

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization is a field of engineering that uses optimization methods to solve design problems by incorporating relevant disciplines simultaneously. Systematic Political Science uses many methods to solve problems. Caution should be used when applying math models where the results are framed to fix a desired end. For example, correlating lottery winners to specific political beliefs or correlating the amount of African rainfall to the tendency to have civil war have each been incorrectly modeled using instrument-variables regression.

Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia (known as Joseph-Louis Lagrange; 1736-1813) used the mathematical optimization method called Lagrange Multipliers. This is the strategy for finding the min/max of a function subject to constraints. This can be used to show how global governance will enforce the min/max of non-compliance with NLF in the META formulae .

The world leader has been foretold of forcing people to accept his mark in order to engage in commerce. Christians will refuse to comply with his orders. As dictator, he has two options for resisters. First, he could imprison them for a year or more (the min). Second, he could murder them (the max).

If x is a vector of individual behavior, f(x) is the desired individual behavior. f(x) is max desired behavior but g(x) behavior is unacceptable to the world leader. To keep g(x) = c while still keeping f(x) as high as possible, a penalty is imposed. If the penalty is death the desired behavior will max not f(x) but f(x) + (-death) g(x). The initial individual behavior will still be somewhat non-compliant but less than before. By adjusting the penalty or Lagrange Multiplier, the world leader can adjust behavior g(x) until it reaches the level of g(x) = c. Normally it could not be determined by the problem from c in advance what the penalty should be, but the Bible says the penalty in this case will be death.

To consolidate global power the mark must be induced. That concentration of power will cause an end game war for world dominance and will bring about the end time. The present arc momentums are Barc 3, Warc 3, and GLarc 3. Given the beliefs that govern these behavioral game theory options, the circumstances require the outcome.

5. Conclusion

International Trade Theory examines the exchange of goods and services between nations as globalization is encouraged by world leaders as discussed in Syzygial Globalization Theory. Cult Personality Theory begins to become a useful tool to observe the behavior of world leaders as Lagrange Multipliers are used as an optimization method. Accordingly, biblical prophesy is also properly elevated in its relevance to the final course of humanity.

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